Abstracts of volume 74, 2002
Duchoslav M. (2002): Flora and vegetation of stony
walls in East Bohemia (Czech Republic). – Preslia 74: 1–25.
This paper deals with the flora and vegetation of stony walls (wall tops, vertical wall surfaces) in East Bohemia. In total, 207 species of vascular plants and 60 mosses were identified in 114 recorded relevés. Flora of walls is composed of a high number of accidental species. Only two species (Poa compressa, Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia) were frequently recorded on walls. Differences in species’ traits (life strategy, life form, dispersal) and ecological requirements of plants (light, moisture) were analysed between vertical wall surfaces and wall tops. Due to high floristic heterogeneity, many communities can be classified only at the level of higher syntaxa. In total, 10 communities were reported on the studied walls. Communities on wall tops were dominated by Poa compressa, P. palustris subsp. xerotica, P. nemoralis subsp. rigidula, Conyza canadensis and Syringa vulgaris. Four communities dominated by Corydalis lutea, Cymbalaria muralis, Asplenium ruta-muraria and Cystopteris fragilis were identified on vertical wall surfaces. Their structure, species composition, ecology and distribution are briefly discussed.
Rotreklová O., Krahulcová A., Vaňková D., Peckert T.
& Mráz P. (2002): Chromosome numbers and breeding systems in some species
of Hieracium subgen. Pilosella from Central Europe. – Preslia,
Praha, 74: 27–44.
Chromosome numbers are given for 16 taxa (and one interspecific hybrid) of Hieracium subgen. Pilosella originating from Central Europe: H. apatelium Nägeli et Peter (2n = 45), H. aurantiacum L. (2n = 36), H. bauhini Besser (2n = 36, 45, 54), H. brachiatum Bertol. ex DC. (2n = 45, 48, 63, 72), H. densiflorum Tausch (2n = 36), H. echioides Lumn. (2n = 18, 27, 36), H. floribundum Wimm. et Grab. (2n = 36, 45), H. glomeratum Froel. (2n = 36, 45), H. guthnickianum Hegetschw. (2n = 54), H. lactucella Wallr. (2n = 18), H. onegense (Norrl.) Norrl. (2n = 18), H. pilosella L. (2n = 36, 45, 54), H. piloselliflorum Nägeli et Peter (2n = 36, 45), H. piloselloides Vill. (2n = 36), H. rothianum Wallr. (2n = 36), H. schultesii F. W. Schultz (2n = 45), and the hybrid H. floribundum × H. aurantiacum (2n = 36). New chromosome numbers are reported for H. brachiatum and H. floribundum. The octoploid cytotype (2n = 72), recorded in H. brachiatum, is the highest ploidy level ever found in plants from the subgen. Pilosella originating from the field. Aneuploidy, rare in this subgenus in Europe, occurs in this hybridogenous species as well: it was recorded in one plant (2n = 48) collected in a hybrid swarm H. pilosella × H. bauhini. The breeding system in H. bauhini, H. brachiatum, H. densiflorum, H. echioides, H. pilosella, H. piloselloides, and H. rothianum was studied. The sexual reproduction of pentaploid H. pilosella is a new observation: it means an increase of diversity in possible reproduction modes of those cytotypes having odd chromosome numbers.
Nováková S. (2002): Algal flora of subalpine peat bog
pools the Krkonoše Mts. – Preslia 74: 45–56.
During a two-year investigation of the Úpské rašeliniště peat bog and the Pančavské rašeliniště peat bog in the Krkonoše Mts (Czech Republic) about 228 taxa of cyanobacteria and algae were found. The diatoms were the dominant group in most of the investigated samples. The relationship between algal flora and the environmental characteristics of the pools was studied. The pH, shading and type of bed were most important factors influencing algal communities in the pools.
Vassiliades D. & Persson K. (2002): A new winter-
flowering species of Colchicum from Greece. – Preslia, Praha 74:
A new species, Colchicum asteranthum Vassil. et K. Perss. (Colchicaceae), endemic to the Peloponnese in Greece, is described. It is a small winter-flowering plant with synanthous leaves and soboliferous corms, the latter a rare feature in the genus. The species has no obvious relations, but it shows some affinity to the S Turkish endemic C. minutum K. Perss.
Sádlo J.& Bufková I. (2002): Vegetation of the
Vltava river alluvial plain in the Šumava Mts (Czech Republic) and the problem
of relict primary meadows. – Preslia 74: 67–83. [In Czech]
Nutrient-rich terrestric habitats form small areas in the peaty alluvial plain of upper stream of the Vltava river. Their vegetation consists of birch and grey alder alluvial woodland, willow and bridewort scrub and tall grassland of sedges, grasses and forbs. A hypothesis that this vegetation is an Early Holocene relic is presented. The relict origin is supported by recent dynamics of habitats and vegetation, findings of palynology, palaeoecology and history of land use, and by the analogical composition and history of relict vegetation of northernmost Europe. The refugial effect of the habitat is suggested by stable conditions on high temporal and spatial scales, and by permanent reclaiming of open gaps along the stream.
Pyšek P., Sádlo J. & Mandák B. (2002): Catalogue
of alien plants of the Czech Republic. – Preslia 74: 97–186.
Alien flora of the Czech Republic is presented. In Appendix 1, 1378 alien taxa (33.4% of the total flora) are listed with information on the taxonomic position, origin, invasive status (casual, naturalized, invasive; a new category post-invasive is introduced), time of immigration (archaeophytes vs. neophytes), habitat type invaded (natural, seminatural, human-made), vegetation invaded (expressed as occurence in phytosociological alliances), mode of introduction into the country (accidental, deliberate), and date of the first record. Number of phytogeographical as well as biological and ecological attributes were compiled for each species in the database; its structure is presented in Appendix 2 as a suggestion for similar work elsewhere. Czech alien flora consists of 24.1% of taxa which arrived before 1500 (archaeophytes) and 75.9% neophytes. There are 891 casuals, 397 naturalized and 90 invasive species. Of introduced neophytes, 21.9% became naturalized, and 6.6% invasive. Hybrids contribute with 13.3% to the total number of aliens, and the hybridization is more frequent in archaeophytes (18.7%) than in neophytes (11.7%). If the 184 hybrids are excluded from the total number of aliens, there are 270 archaeophytes and 924 neophytes in the Czech flora, i.e. total of 1195 taxa. Accidental arrivals account for 53.4% of all taxa and deliberate introduction for 46.6%; the ratio is reversed for neophytes considered separately (45.5 vs. 54.5%). Majority of aliens (62.8%) are confined to human- made habitats, 11.0% were recorded exclusively in natural or seminatural habitats, and 26.2% occur in both types of habitat. Archaeophytes and neophytes occur in 66 and 83 alliances, respectively, of the phytosociological system. Flora is further analysed with respect to origin, life histories, life forms and strategies. Only 310 species (22.4% of the total number of all alien taxa) are common or locally abundant; others are rare, based on a single locality or no longer present. The following 19 taxa are reported as new for the Czech alien flora: Agrostis scabra, Alhagi pseudalhagi, Allium atropurpureum, Bromus hordeaceus subsp. pseudothominii, Carduus tenuiflorus, Centaurea ×gerstlaueri, Centaurea nigra ×phrygia, Cerastium ×maureri, Gilia capitata, Helianthus strumosus, Hieracium pannosum, Hordeum leporinum, Oenothera coronifera, Papaver atlanticum subsp. mesatlanticum, Parietaria pennsylvanica, Polypogon fugax, Rodgersia aesculifolia, Sedum pallidum var. bithynicum, Sedum stoloniferum; these represent results of our own field research as well as of herbaria search, and unpublished data from colleagues. Other 44 taxa are reported as escaping from cultivation for the first time. Twenty two archaeophytes are listed in the Red List of the Czech flora.
Kaplan Z., Plačková I. & Štěpánek J. (2002):
Potamogeton ×fluitans (P. natans × P.
lucens) in the Czech Republic. II. Isozyme analysis. – Preslia 74:
Evidence from isozyme electrophoresis confirmed previous hypothesis on the occurrence of interspecific hybridization between Potamogeton natans L. and P. lucens L. formulated on the basis of morphology and stem anatomy. Isozyme phenotypes of the morphologically intermediate plants were compared with those obtained from the putative parents growing in the same locality. P. natans and P. lucens differed consistently in at least 12 loci and possessed different alleles at 7 loci. The hybrid had no unique alleles and exhibited an additive “hybrid” isozyme pattern for all 7 loci that could be reliably analysed and where the parents displayed different enzyme patterns. Both true parental genotypes were detected among samples of plants of P. lucens and P. natans from the same locality. The hybrid plants represent a recent F1 hybrid generation resulting from a single hybridization event. Consistent differences in enzyme activity between submerged and floating leaves of P. natans and P. ×fluitans were observed in all interpretable enzyme systems.
Váňa J. & Kučera J. (2002): Cephalozia
macrostachya confirmed in the Czech Republic. – Preslia 74:
Cephalozia macrostachya Kaal. has been recently found in the ‘Swamp’ mire near Doksy (Northern Bohemia). The following revision of herbarium specimens of Cephalozia loitlesbergeri Schiffn. revealed one more specimen of C. macrostachya, collected already in 1965 in the Krušné hory Mts. The habitat preferences for both species in Central Europe are discussed and it is assumed that while C. loitlesbergeri is a clearly upland species of open, acidic raised bogs, C. macrostachya seems to prefer lowland poor fens or lagg parts of bogs in middle altitudes.
Komárek J. & Komárková-Legnerová J. (2002):
Contribution to the knowledge of planktic cyanoprokaryotes from central Mexico.
– Preslia 74: 207–233.
The diversity of freshwater and inland saline planktic cyanoprokaryote microflora (cyanobacteria, cyanophytes) in Mexico depends on the wide variation of the biotopes in this country. There are no detailed studies, describing the planktic cyanoprokaryotic species from this region. This paper lists 51 planktic morphospecies, which were found in various water bodies in central Mexico during May 1992 and March-September 1993. Four new species (Cyanobacterium lineatum, Cyanotetras aerotopa, Anabaena fallax, Cylindrospermopsis taverae) are described, and important species commented. Various species characteristic for various types of reservoirs (volcanic lakes, lakes and artificial reservoirs with diverse trophic levels, hypertrophic pools, saline coastal lakes) were found. Taxonomic and ecological elaborations of the planktic cyanobacteria of Mexico (from an ecological, geographical as well as sanitary point of view – eutrofication, biomass production, toxicity) are urgently needed.
Pokorný P. (2002): Palaeogeography of forest trees in
the Czech Republic around 2 000 BP: Methodical approach and selected results. –
Preslia 74: 235–246.
Spatial variations in regional forest composition are analyzed for the period around 2 000 years before present in the territory of the Czech Republic. The results of pollen analyses at 16 different sites (original data and those published by other authors) form the basis of this study. The results are preliminary because of the small number of sites sampled. This article demonstrates the possibilities of the approach and is the first step to a wider application in the future. The conclusions indicate that pollen analysis is accurate enough in most cases for the reconstruction of past forest composition on a regional scale, and different deposits reflect spatial heterogeneity. Altitude, intensity of human impact, and soil type were the major factors affecting past distribution of forest trees. Oak and hornbeam woodlands, although widely affected by human activity, dominated the lowlands. Beech and silver fir were an important admixture in these communities. Although oak was present at higher altitudes, the occurrence of upland oak woodlands was limited more than indicated by recent geobotanical reconstructions. Instead, mixed forests existed at middle altitudes, often dominated by silver fir and beech. In less favourable habitats, spruce was common. Such upland forests extended high into the mountains, where because of the more severe climatic conditions beech and spruce started to dominate over silver fir.
Snogerup S., Zika F. P. & Kirschner J. (2002):
Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Juncus. – Preslia 74:
New combinations and other nomenclatural notes on the Juncaceae (Juncus sections Iridifolii, Steirochloa and Juncotypus) are proposed within the framework of the preparation of the “Flora of the World” monograph of the family. New combinations are proposed in Juncus prismatocarpus, J. arcticus, J. balticus and J. effusus. On the basis of the new evaluation of Pacific North American plants examined by H. L. Lint in an unpublished thesis, two names are elevated to the species rank (J. hesperius and J. exiguus), and a new species is described (J. laccatus), all related to J. effusus.
Kaplan Z. (2002): Linear-leaved species of
Potamogeton in the Czech Republic III. P. obtusifolius and P.
friesii. – Preslia 74: 267–280. [In Czech]
The third part of a revision of linear-leaved species of the genus Potamogeton in the Czech Republic is given. Two species, P. obtusifolius and P. friesii, are dealt with in this contribution. Species descriptions, relevant synonyms, illustrations, a list of specimens examined and distribution maps are provided. P. obtusifolius grows almost exclusively in the Bohemian part, particularly in S and E Bohemia, whereas in Moravia it is confined to a few localities mainly in its NE part (Silesia). It is classified as a threatened species of the Czech flora. P. friesii has been collected only in a few localities in C and NE Bohemia. Last time it was seen in 1989 but has not been confirmed in the site since then; thus the species belongs among missing (and probably extinct) taxa in the Czech Republic.
Dančák M. (2002): Glyceria striata – a
new alien grass species in the flora of the Czech Republic. – Preslia
Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc., a species native to North America, was found as an alien species on several localities in the Hostýnské vrchy Mts (eastern Moravia). It grows there on disturbed sites in artificial, usually spruce and alder woods at an altitude of 340–550 m a.s.l. The way of introduction of G. striata to this area is uncertain. However, it is present as an alien in many European countries. A detailed synonymy and description of species is given. Taxonomy and systematics are shortly discussed and determination key within the Czech species of the genus Glyceria is also given. Notes on the distribution and the history of naturalization of the species in Europe as well as notes on its ecology are included.
Rejmánek M. & Rejmánková E. (2002): Biogeography
of artificial islands: effects of age, area, elevation, and isolation on plant
species richness. – Preslia 74: 307–314.
Vascular flora of 71 artificial islands of varying agewas analyzed in 22 fishponds, Třeboň Basin, the Czech Republic. Data on species richness were interpreted in terms of Wilson’s (1969) hypothesis on the development of biotic communities. An increase in species richness during the non-interactive stage (one to two years) and a decrease in the interactive stage (three to six years) were both statistically significant. As predicted, by Wilson’s hypothesis, there was also an increase in species richness in the assortative stage (seven to >50 years), however, this trend was not significant. This successional pattern was confirmed by the vegetation development recorded on 34 re-sampled islands. For these islands the positive change in species richness during the assortative stage was significant based on both paired t- and binomial tests. Contributions of island area, elevation, and isolation during individual successional stages were evaluated. As a whole, this is probably the first clear confirmation of Wilson’s hypothesis for vascular plant communities on islands.
Raspopov I. M., Adamec L. & Husák Š. (2002):
Influence of aquatic macrophytes on the littoral zone habitats of the Lake
Ladoga, NW Russia. – Preslia 74: 315–321.
Hydrobotanical and hydrobiological field work was carried out at Lake Ladoga in NW Russia, mostly at Impilahti Bay in the northern part of the lake. In a shallow medium dense stand of Elodea canadensis (1452 plants.m-2; mean 192 g.m-2 of dry weight) in Impilahti Bay, between 12:00 to 18:00 hours in August 1996, the water was by 1.0–1.4 °C warmer and its pH 1.05–1.2 higher than open water. In the stand, pH increased almost to 9.0. In the same stand, water become supersaturated with O2 to 134% at midday on a sunny August day, and to only 105% on a cloudy day. The daily pH and [O2] fluctuations within the medium dense E. canadensis stand in Impilahti Bay were much less than those measured in dense stands of this species, e.g., in shallow eutrophic Czech fishponds. Communities of littoral phytophilous zooplankton, living pelagically or slightly attached on the plants, formed in the macrophyte stands. The littoral phytophilous zooplankton complex was on average 4 times more abundant and had a 38 times greater biomass per water volume (0.26–164.2 g dry weight.m-3) than that in the open water near the macrophyte communities (0.05–4.91 g dry weight.m-3) or was 3 times more abundant and had on average a 10 times greater biomass, respectively, than that in the open water in the middle of the bay. This does not accord with theory, which predicts that ecotones have the highest biodiversity and productivity.
Oťaheľová H. & Valachovič M. (2002):
Effects of the Gabčíkovo hydroelectric-station on aquatic vegetation of the
Danube river (Slovakia). – Preslia 74: 323–331.
Vegetation in the river Danube was studied in 1972–2001 to document the changes associated with the construction of a water reservoir. Before 1993, only a single species of aquatic plant, Potamogeton pectinatus, was known to occur in the main channel of the river Danube, which forms the frontier between Slovakia and Hungary. In the 1980s the building of the Gabčíkovo hydroelectric power station started and was finished in 1993. At present, five different aquatic habitats occur in the study area. (i) In the upper part of the Čunovo reservoir, there are stands of reed; Zannichellia palustris and Elodea nuttallii were the first other macrophytes to colonize this area where there are now 11 species. (ii) The Old Danube consists of shallows and margins of the original riverbed, which since 1992 (1851–1811 river km) were occupied predominantly by Zannichellia palustris. The adjacent pools were colonized by Elodea nuttallii, Potamogeton species, Batrachium trichophyllum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Lemnaceae species, and Phalaris arundinacea dominates the littoral areas. (ii) The bypass canal harbours only the moss Cinclidotus riparius growing on the boulders. (iv) Two seepage canals were rapidly overgrown by macrophytes, many species of which were threatened species in Slovakia (Apium repens, Groenlandia densa, Hippuris vulgaris, Chara species). (v) Succession occurred in river arms on the left bank after the damming of the river which resulted in changes in spatial distribution and species composition of macrophytes; a North- American alien species Elodea nuttallii spread rapidly there.
Moravcová L., Zákravský P. & Hroudová Z. (2002):
Germination response to temperature and flooding of four Central European
species of Bolboschoenus. – Preslia 74: 333–343.
Germination of four Central European Bolboschoenus species (B. yagara, B. koshewnikowii, B. maritimus and B. laticarpus) was studied. The need for stratification and the influence of temperature and water regime on seed germination were tested in the laboratory. Cold wet stratification in the laboratory as well aswater stratification in the field enhanced the germination of all species. Germination was facilitated by increasing stratification length, but differed between species. Field stratification in water improved the germination of all species compared to stratification in soil. Germination requirements of the four Bolboschoenus species, despite the broader ecological amplitude of B. laticarpus, were similar. The best germination occurred after four months of field stratification in cold water. All species germinated best in aerobic conditions when the day/night temperature fluctuations were high (30/10 °C). These conditions correspond to those occurring where the seedlings tend to establish themselves in the field: exposed pond bottoms or wet soil in field depressions.
Kaplan Z. (2002): Linear-leaved species of
Potamogeton in the Czech Republic IV. P. pusillus s.l. and P.
trichoides. – Preslia 74: 345–371. [In Czech]
The fourth part of a revision of linear-leaved species of the genus Potamogeton in the Czech Republic is given, dealing with P. pusillus s.l. and P. trichoides. The appropriate taxonomic concept and species delimitation within P. pusillus s.l. are discussed. Because of still unresolved taxonomic difficulties and high percentage of specimens that cannot be assigned to one of the two traditionally distinguished species, P. pusillus s. str. (syn. P. panormitanus) and P. berchtoldii, the broader concept of P. pusillus s.l. has tentatively been adopted in this revision. This species complex is widespread in the Czech Republic, absent only in relatively small areas of the highest elevations and the driest areas without suitable biotopes. P. pusillus s.l. is the commonest taxon of Potamogeton in standing waters. P. trichoides, a well defined species distinguished by several morphological characters, occurs scattered mainly in S, C and E Bohemia and S and C Moravia, with most localities concentrated in S Bohemia. It is considered as strongly threatened species of the Czech flora. Species descriptions, relevant synonyms, illustrations, a list of specimens examined and distribution maps are provided for both species. P. rutilus was once reported from the Czech Republic in error. No specimen from this country has been found in herbaria.
Sukopp H. (2002): On the early history of urban
ecology in Europe. – Preslia 74: 373–393.
Early investigations on the ecology of cities were in the tradition of natural history and focused on single biotopes. Of special interest were the plants and animals introduced into newareas directly or indirectly by man. In Central Europe, studies of anthropogenic plant migrations and cultural history were combined in a specific way, the so called Thellungian paradigm. The succession of vegetation on ruins after the bombing during the Second World War was studied in many cities. Ecological studies on whole cities started in the 1970s with investigations on energy flow and nutrient cycling. Today the term urban ecology is used in two different ways: in developing programs for sustainable cities, and in investigation of living organisms in relation to their environment in towns and cities.
Bornkamm R. (2002): On the phytosociological
affiliations of an invasive species Senecio inaequidens in Berlin. –
Preslia 74: 395-407.
During the years 1996–2001 phytosociological relevés were made of stands containing Senecio inaequidens in the city of Berlin and its surrounding. Data on the structure of the stands were recorded, life form spectra and ecological indicator values were calculated. This species, previously not known in the region before 1993, was found in 9 different phytosociological units (allliances). Growth parameters of S. inaequidens differed widely between these units and were positively correlated with cover and height of the surrounding vegetation. The conclusion drawn was that this species is one of the driving forces in the development from annual to perennial vegetation and has a role similar to that of other dominant species. From the indicator values of the stands surrounding S. inaequidens the following Ellenberg indicator values for the species were derived: Light L 8, temperature T 6, continentality K 4, moisture F 4, soil reaction R 7, nitrogen N 0 (= vague), and hemeroby values H α- and β- euhemerobic. Comparisons with data in literature from W and NW Germany show a broader sociological and ecological amplitude of S. inaequidens in this area, which was colonized by this species in the 1970s. The geographical expansion of this species is not yet finished, and further colonization within its area of distribution is likely to occur in plant communities with low degrees of hemeroby and growing in moister habitats.
Kim Y.-M., Zerbe S. & Kowarik I. (2002): Human
impact on flora and habitats in Korean rural settlements. – Preslia 74:
Land use has direct and indirect effects on the environmental conditions, which play a major role in the dynamics and changes in landscape. In Central Europe, the hemeroby approach is broadly used to quantify human impact on habitats and their vegetation. In this paper, the hemeroby approach was adopted for studying the rural settlements in the East Asian Republic of Korea. Flora and habitats of eight villages were analysed. The habitats were classified according to the five degrees on the hemeroby scale (oligo-, β-meso-, α-meso-, eu-, and polyhemerobic). Hemeroby indicator values were derived for species that were typical of a specific level of hemeroby. Habitats with the same level of hemeroby were grouped. The highest species number was found in habitats that were only moderately influenced by man. This corresponds to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. The flora of habitats that were subject to the highest level of human impact (polyhemerobic)was characterized by a high proportion of annual species, but unexpectedly not by the highest proportion of non-native species.
Sýkora K. V., Kalwij J. M. & Keizer P.-J. (2002):
Phytosociological and floristic evaluation of a 15-year ecological management
of roadside verges in the Netherlands. – Preslia 74: 421–436.
This paper investigates and evaluates the effects of ecological management on the vegetation of roadside verges in the Netherlands, conducted by the Ministry of Transport (PublicWorks Department). A total of 545 relevés, made between 1986 and 1988, were re-examined in 2001. Data were analysed for changes in number of species, rarity of species, red list (endangered) species and syntaxonomical species groups. The total number of species almost did not change. Common species increased while rare species decreased. The red list species declined by 40%. Species from shrub and woodland, from fertile, wet soils and from nitrophilous fringes increased, while species characteristic of relatively open and nutrient-poor habitats and some pioneer communities decreased. Plant communities were valued, and phytosociological changes were evaluated, using the deductive method of Kopecký and Hejný and knowledge about vulnerability, rarity and replaceability. In 44.5% of the 465 evaluated relevés, the vegetation value remained unchanged, in 23.0% it decreased and in 32.5% it increased. The different trends tended to counterbalance one another, resulting in an unchanged mean vegetation value. The increase in vegetation value is mainly due to the increase in relevés containing species rich Arrhenatheretum-subassociations. The decrease is mainly due to a decrease in moist heath, dry sandy pioneer communities and grasslands on relatively poor soils, and the increase of species-poor nitrophilous tall herb communities and woody vegetation. In some of the verges studied, the vegetation value decreased as a result of inappropriate management and construction. Suggestions for improvement are given. Local successes indicate that appropriate management can considerably improve the botanical value of roadside verges, and consequently their value for other life forms.
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