Copyright © Czech Botanical Society

Abstracts of volume 79, 2007

Roleček J. (2007): Formalized classification of thermophilous oak forests in the Czech Republic: what brings the Cocktail method? – Preslia 79: 1–21.
A formalized classification of Czech thermophilous oak forest vegetation is presented. It is based on the Cocktail algorithm, including the formulation of a set of explicit definitions of vegetation units that are used for unequivocal assignment of relevés to defined vegetation types. Eight out of 10 traditionally distinguished associations of thermophilous oak forests were formally defined: Bohemian warm and dry oak forest (Lathyro versicoloris-Quercetum pubescentis), Moravian warm and dry oak forest (Pruno mahaleb-Quercetum pubescentis), dry-mesic oak forest on basic rocky substrates (Corno-Quercetum), dry-mesic oak forest on acidic substrates (Sorbo torminalis-Quercetum), Moravian dry oak forest on acidic substrates (Genisto pilosae-Quercetum petraeae), dry-mesic oak forest on heavy soils (Potentillo albae-Quercetum), dry-mesic oak forest on sandy soils (Carici fritschii-Quercetum roboris) and dry oak forest on loess (Quercetum pubescenti-roboris). The specific features of Cocktail classifications are discussed. The complementarity of the traditional, imperfectly formalized classifications and modern formalized classifications is stressed.

Janeček Š., Janečková P. & Lepš J. (2007): Effect of competition and soil quality on root topology of the perennial grass Molinia caerulea. – Preslia 79: 23–32.
Changes in root topology of the tussock perennial grass Molinia caerulea were studied in a pot experiment. The target species M. caerulea was grown alone and with Holcus lanatus or Carex hartmanii as a competitor. The root topology in three different soils (sand, humus rich soil and a mixture of both) was measured. Influence of competitive pressure on root topology was determined in terms of root biomass surrounding the target root. Whereas no simple significant changes in root topology due to soil quality were observed, an increase in competition pressure caused a shift of root topology towards a more herringbone structure. This shift was greatest in nutrient poor sand and least in humus-rich soil. In addition, an influence of individual competitors on topological changes in humus-rich soil was observed after excluding the effect of total root biomass.

Kollmann J., Bañuelos M. J. & Nielsen S. L. (2007): Effects of virus infection on growth of the invasive alien Impatiens glandulifera. – Preslia 79: 33–44.
The absence of fungal or viral diseases of some invasive alien plants partially explains their success. However, for several species this issue has not been studied and no account of such infections are recorded for Impatiens glandulifera, a problematic weed in moist and half-open habitats of central and western Europe. We record for the first time viral infections in plants from different European regions grown in a common garden experiment. The infection was systemic and could be transferred to two species of Chenopodium and five species of Nicotiana, and resulted in the development of local necrotic spots within a week. The symptoms resembled Tobacco Rattle Virus, but this was not confirmed by an ELISA-test. In I. glandulifera the virus led to reduced above-ground biomass. Relative stem biomass and basal diameter were also lower in diseased plants, but therewas no significant differences in plant height and number of main branches. Also virus infection did not affect the following reproductive traits: time to flowering, pollen viability, fruit abortion, seed/ovule ratio, seed number per fruit and individual seed mass. This virus was not transmitted via seed. The potential effects of such viral infections on the population dynamics and biological control of this alien plant are discussed.

Chrtek J. jun. & Mráz P. (2007): Taxonomic revision of Hieracium nigrescens agg. in the Western Carpathians. – Preslia 79: 45–62.
A taxonomic concept for the Hieracium nigrescens agg. (H. alpinum H. murorum) in the Western Carpathians is proposed. Three taxa at the species level are recognized, i.e. Hieracium jarzabczynum, H. mlinicae and H. vapenicanum. One new combination, Hieracium mlinicae (Hruby et Zahn) Chrtek f. et Mráz (H. nigrescens subsp. mlinicae Hruby et Zahn) is published. All taxa should be considered as endemic to the Western Carpathians (both the Polish and Slovakian parts). Detailed descriptions, drawings, lists of localities, distribution maps and determination key are provided along with a comparison with the last comprehensive account of the group (by Zahn 1936). Several lectotypes were chosen for the taxa recognized by Zahn within H. nigrescens s.l.

Krahulec F. & Nesvadbová J. (2007): Intergeneric hybrid Festuca rubra × Vulpia myuros in the Czech Republic. – Preslia 79: 63–68.
A hybrid between Festuca rubra and Vulpia myuros was found in SW Bohemia, Czech Republic in 1991. It is the first documented occurrence of a hybrid between Festuca and Vulpia in Central Europe. Its characteristic features, evident in the field, are sterility, sheath of upper leaf covering the culm up to panicle, the ratio of the lengths of lower and upper glume between 0.49 and 0.71, and intermediate awns. The occurrence of this hybrid at other localities in Central Europe is still possible in spite of the decrease of number of localities for Vulpia species.

Ekrt L., Lepší M., Boublík K. & Lepší P. (2007): Dryopteris remota rediscovered for the flora of the Czech Republic. – Preslia 79: 69–82.
Until now, Dryopteris remota was only recorded in the Czech Republic from the Moravian Karst, ca 70 years ago. This record is mentioned in some studies, but references to the data’s origin have always been missing. For this reason it was uncertain whether D. remota was still present in the Czech Republic. Recently, the records from the Moravian Karst were verified by re-examination of original herbarium specimens. In 2002 a specimen of D. remota was found for the first time in Bohemia, close to the village of Ktiš, on a slope of Malý Plešný hill in the foothills of the Bohemian Forest (S Bohemia). At this locality only one plant occurred on the boundary between Lonicera nigra-shrub and spruce-beech-fir forest, on a gneiss outcrop. Determination of the Czech specimens of D. remota was based on comparisons with macro- and micromorphological characters of both Alpine (Upper Austria) and Carpathian (West Ukraine) specimens, as well as descriptions in the literature. A detailed morphological description and comparison with similar taxa are included. A map of its distribution within the Czech Republic as well as a map of the distribution of D. remota worldwide is also presented. It is suggested that D. remota be designated a critically endangered plant species in the Czech Republic.

Těšitel J. & Štech M. (2007): Morphological variation in the Melampyrum sylvaticum group within the transitional zone between M. sylvaticum s. str. and M. herbichii. – Preslia 79: 83–99.
The Melampyrum sylvaticum group is a complex of three closely related species. This group is most variable in the Carpathian region. Interactions among different levels (within-population to interspecific) of genetic variation and influence of the environment are considered to be the main sources of the complicated morphological variation in this region. Morphological variation in the M. sylvaticum group was studied in mountain ranges of the Hercynian Massif and in the Western and Ukrainian Carpathians. Several populations were sampled at different altitudes within each mountain range. Hierarchical partitioning of morphological variation at different levels (within populations, among populations within a mountain range and among mountain ranges) was calculated. Correlations among groups of morphological characters and altitude were calculated. The largest proportion of variation on a large geographic scale (i.e. among mountain ranges) was detected in anther length and several corolla characters (length of the lower corolla lip, height of upper corolla lip), whereas these traits were homogeneous at a local scale (within populations and among populations in one mountain range). An opposite pattern (i. e. high proportion of variation at the low levels, which blurred possible large scale differences) was found in bract traits and several calyx characters. Moreover, a strong correlation between bract length and altitude was observed. The observed changes in the proportions of morphological variation and response to altitude suggest a close connection between bract characters and environmental factors (or lower levels of genetic variation). On the other hand, some of the flower characters seem to be genetically determined and thus might reflect evolutionary processes (early diversification, potential hybridization, introgression) on which the taxonomic treatment of the group should be based. The most distinct differences were detected between samples from the Ukraine and south-western part of Bohemia. Populations from the the Sudeten Mts and the Western Carpathians were variable and morphologically intermediate, forming a continuum between the two extremes.

Lihová J., Kochjarová J. & Marhold K. (2007): Hybridization between polyploids Cardamine enneaphyllos and C. glanduligera in the West Carpathians: evidence from morphology, pollen fertility and PCR-RFLP patterns. – Preslia 79: 101–125.
In the present study hybridization between the decaploid Cardamine enneaphyllos and hexaploid C. glanduligera (both previously assigned to Dentaria) was examined. The study area was located in the West Carpathians in Slovakia, where the distribution ranges of the putative parental species overlap, and they occur sympatrically. The putative hybrid C. ×paxiana was studied in many localities in terms of its morphological variation, pollen fertility and PCR-RFLP patterns. Prior to analyses hybrid individuals were tentatively determined based on three morphological characters reported as diagnostic: flower colour, presence of glands on leaves and length of rhizome internodes. Such tentative hybrid identification was confirmed by strongly decreased pollen fertility and an additive restriction pattern in the nuclear ITS region. The possible sources of the substantial morphological variation of hybrids, revealed by morphometric analyses, are discussed. Based on the results of the PCR-RFLP analysis of cpDNA, bidirectional hybridization occurred, although C. enneaphyllos was usually the maternal parent. Geographic distribution and sterility of hybrid individuals suggest that they are repeatedly generated from crosses between the parental species, and represent F1 or early generation hybrids maintained by vegetative reproduction.

Adamec L. (2007): Investment in carnivory in Utricularia stygia and U. intermedia with dimorphic shoots. – Preslia 79: 127–139.
Utricularia stygia Thor and U. intermedia Hayne are aquatic carnivorous plants with distinctly dimorphic shoots. Investment in carnivory and the morphometric characteristics of both types of shoots of these plants were determined in dense stands growing in shallow dystrophic waters in the Třeboň basin, Czech Republic, and their possible ecological regulation and interspecific differences considered. Vertical profiles of chemical and physical microhabitat factors were measured in these stands in order to differentiate key microhabitat factors associated with photosynthetic and carnivorous shoots. Total dry biomass of both species in dense stands ranged between 2.4–97.0 g·m–2. The percentage of carnivorous shoots in the total biomass, which was used as a measure of the investment in carnivory, ranged from 40–59% and that of traps from 18–29% in both species. The high percentage of total biomass made up of carnivorous shoots in both species indicates both a high structural investment in carnivory and high maintenance costs. As the mean length of the main carnivorous shoots and trap number per plant in carnivorous shoots in both species differed highly significantly between sites, it is probable that the investment in carnivory is determined by ecological factors with low water level one of the potentially most important. Marked differences were found only in [O2] between the 1–3 cm deep free-water zone with green photosynthetic shoots of both species and the 10 cm deep loose sediment with chlorophyll-free carnivorous shoots with traps (range 1.7–7.2 vs. 0.0–0.8 mg·l–1). The waters can be characterized as mesotrophic. Though anoxia occurred consistently at a depth of 10 cm in loose sediment at all U. stygia and U. intermedia sites the carnivorous shoots of both species growing in this microhabitat are able to survive and do not avoid this microhabitat.

Boublík K., Petřík P., Sádlo J., Hédl R., Willner W., Černý T. & Kolbek J. (2007): Calcicolous beech forests and related vegetation in the Czech Republic: a comparison of formalized classifications. – Preslia 79: 141–161.
A syntaxonomical synthesis of calcicolous forests dominated by Fagus sylvatica (Cephalanthero-Fagenion suballiance) in the Czech Republic was carried out using the Braun-Blanquet approach. Relevés included in the analyses were selected following formalized approach by using an expert-delimited group of 38 calcicolous and/or xerothermophilous species. Only one association Cephalanthero-Fagetum was distinguished, which usually occurs on limestone, calcareous sandstone and calcareous sandy marlite; however, can be found also on base-rich siliceous bedrock (e.g. basalt, phonolite). Based on TWINSPAN analysis, three subassociations were recognized within the Cephalanthero-Fagetum: (i) Cephalanthero-Fagetum seslerietosum caeruleae on shallow rocky soils with frequent dominance of Sesleria caerulea and presence of petrophytes, (ii) Cephalanthero-Fagetum typicum on dry, shallow soils with a significant presence of light-demanding, thermophilous, and calcicolous species, and (iii) Cephalanthero-Fagetum actaeetosum spicatae on deeper, sufficiently moist soils with an abundance of mesophilous, nitrophilous and acidophilous species. The name Cephalanthero-Fagetum actaeetosum spicatae is a new nomenclatural combination. The relationships between Cephalanthero-Fagetum and similar forest vegetation types containing xerothermophilous and/or calcicolous species in the Czech Republic are discussed. The main gradients in species composition of Cephalanthero-Fagetum subassociations were revealed by gradient analysis. The Ellenberg indicator values, altitude, slope, and ‘southness’ were used to interpret these gradients. Using unconstrained ordination analysis (DCA) the syntaxonomical interpretation indicated three relatively distinct groups. Moreover, further DCA analysis revealed the well-defined position of Cephalanthero-Fagetum within Czech beech forests. The results of the above delimitation of Cephalanthero-Fagetum were compared with the results based on Cocktail-defined species groups improved by similarity-based assignment of relevés (using frequency-positive fidelity index). When the Cocktail-based formulas for beech forests were applied to the relevés selected by our 38-species diagnostic group, the correspondence between these two approaches was only 36%. However, at the lower subassociation level, the highest correspondence occurred for Cephalanthero-Fagetum seslerietosum (84%). The reason for this high correspondence is that the species composition includes many specialists (i.e. good diagnostic species) and it occurs at the end of an ecological gradient. To sum up, it is possible to define vegetation units accurately using strict formulas, as opposed to the less rigorous ‘soft’ traditional approach. However, both approaches fail when defining central units.

Vondrák J., Kocourková J., Palice Z. & Liška J. (2007): New and noteworthy lichens in the Czech Republic. – Preslia 79: 163–184.
New information is provided on the distribution of 19 species of lichens belonging to the genus Caloplaca (Teloschistales) in the Czech Republic. Six species are new to this country: C. epithallina, C. erodens, C. inconnexa, C. phlogina, C. polycarpa and C. thuringiaca. The species C. albolutescens, C. cerinella, C. chlorina, C. chrysodeta, C. dichroa, C. flavocitrina, C. herbidella and C. marmorata are reported from the Czech Republic, but little is known about their distribution in this country. Caloplaca biatorina, C. obliterans, C. rubelliana, and C. xantholyta are rediscovered after more than 50 years. The presence of Caloplaca crenulatella, recently reported as new to this country, is confirmed and is actually one of the most common species of this genus. Ecological and chorological data are given for each species, and taxonomic and nomenclatural notes for C. albolutescens and C. chlorina are amended.

Poulíčková A. & Hašler P. (2007): Aerophytic diatoms from caves in central Moravia (Czech Republic). – Preslia 79: 185–204.
This paper describes the first study of the diatom assemblages in caves in the Czech Republic. The study focused on subaeric habitats: rock faces within caves, walls at cave entrances and “lampflora” assemblages, in three cave systems, Mladeč, Javoříčko and Zbrašov, all in central Moravia. The morphological and cytological variability, ecology and life strategies of diatoms were studied in fresh samples, in Naphrax preparations, in cultures grown on agar plates and in monoclonal cultures. A total of 22 diatom species was identified, mostly aerophytic species and tolerant of low light intensities. Luticola and Diadesmis species complexes are discussed. Taxa D. gallica and L. paramutica var. binodis are new for the Czech Republic. Sexual reproduction was observed in L. mutica and Orthoseira roeseana.

Zelený D. & Chytrý M. (2007): Environmental control of the vegetation pattern in deep river valleys of the Bohemian Massif. – Preslia 79: 205–222.
The pattern of natural vegetation on non-calcareous soils in two deep river valleys of the Bohemian Massif (Vltava and Dyje rivers, Czech Republic) was analyzed in order to determine the main topographic and soil variables affecting the composition of the vegetation. Vegetation data together with topographic and soil variables were collected along transects down the slope from the upper edge to the bottom of the valley. The distribution of vegetation types within the valleys was described using cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). Effects of topographic and soil variables were compared using a set of canonical correspondence analyses (CCAs) with explanatory variable selection based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC). In order to describe the non-linear interaction between the two topographic variables, elevation and aspect, a new method (moving window CCA) was introduced. This method assessed the explanatory power of aspect at various elevations above the valley bottom. Results show that main vegetation coenoclines are correlated with two complex environmental gradients: the moisture-nutrient-soil reaction and light-temperature-continentality gradients. Soil variables are slightly better predictors of vegetation composition than topographic variables. Altogether, these variables explain 18.8–21.6% of the total inertia. Although soil development depends on topography, the variation jointly explained by both groups of variables is only 3.9–5.2%, indicating that each of these two groups of variables influences vegetation pattern in a different way. Variables selected by the most parsimonious model for the Vltava valley are aspect, soil pH, soil type fluvisol and soil depth. For the Dyje valley the same variables as in Vltava valley were selected except for soil depth, which was replaced by soil type cambisol. Aspect has a strong effect on vegetation on the middle slopes but not on the lower slopes of the valleys. The results of all analyses are similar between the two valleys, suggesting that similar patterns may also occur in other deep river valleys of mid-altitudes of the Bohemian Massif.

Vojta J. (2007): Relative importance of historical and natural factors influencing vegetation of secondary forests in abandoned villages. – Preslia 79: 223–244.
The factors influencing plant species diversity in secondary and ancient forests can differ. Apart from environmental variability caused by natural conditions, secondary forests are influenced by historical factors (previous human activity). However, the effect of historical factors on vegetation is not fully understood. Secondary forests that have developed in abandoned villages in the Doupovské hory mountains, Czech Republic, were surveyed and compared with ancient forests in an attempt to determine the effect of historical factors and separate it from that of natural gradients. The results show that secondary forests in abandoned villages form a unique type of vegetation that differs from ancient forests mainly in the presence of species indicating a high nutrient content and high pH of the soils. This indicates that the previous high nutrient input in the villages still influences the soils and causes the differences. Variability of village forests is influenced mainly by a gradient in the available phosphorus content of the soils, soil moisture (approximated by wetness index) and organic matter content. The pattern in the phosphorus content and pH indicate a different intensity of historical influence in the centre compared to the periphery of the villages. Vegetation variability is modified by former land-use and village structure. The effect of historical factors is relatively strong and cannot be explained by coincidental initial conditions.

Honsová D., Hejcman M., Klaudisová M., Pavlů V., Kocourková D. & Hakl J. (2007): Species composition of an alluvial meadow after 40 years of applying nitrogen, phospohorus and potassium fertilizer. – Preslia 79: 245–258.
In 1966, the Černíkovice experiment, Czech Republic, was started when an alluvial meadow dominated by Alopecurus pratensis was subjected to the following fertilizer treatments: non-fertilized control, PK, N50PK, N100PK, N150PK, and N200PK. The experimental plots were cut three times per year in the initial phase of the experiment and twice per year since the late 1980s. In mid May 2005, plant cover was visually estimated, biomass yield and sward height measured in order to detect changes in the grassland ecosystem caused by this long-term fertilizer treatment. After 40 years treatment was a significant predictor of sward structure, explaining 32% of the variability in plant cover data in RDA. Legumes were not detected in the N200PK treatment and achieved the highest cover in the control and PK treatment. Grasses had the lowest cover in the PK treatment and control, which significantly differed from all treatments with N. Alopecurus pratensis prevailed in all NxPK treatments. Herbs had the highest cover in the control followed by the PK treatment and both treatments significantly differed from the NxPK treatments. Achillea millefolium was recorded in all treatments, but the highest cover was recorded in the control treatment. Species richness of vascular plants ranged from 8 per m2 in the N200PK treatment to 24 in the control. A significant decrease in species richness with increase in sward height was detected. The cover of mosses ranged from 1 to 6% like sward height gradually increased with fertilizer application. Aboveground biomass yield was significantly lower in the control than all other treatments. Based on the results of the Černíkovice experiment and a comparison with other long-term fertilizer experiments it is concluded that naturally highly productive grasslands are much less threatened by the inappropriate application of fertilizers than low productive grasslands with a specific plant species composition.

Kozáková R. & Pokorný P. (2007): Dynamics of the biotopes at the edge of a medieval town: pollen analysis of Vltava river sediments in Prague, Czech Republic. – Preslia 79: 259–281.
As part of an archaeological excavation in Valdštejnská street in the Lesser Town of Prague, flood sediments in an old channel of the river Vltava were studied by means of pollen analysis. Analyses were performed on a core taken before the archaeological excavation and samples from the layers uncovered by the excavation. The core includes deposits from the era that followed the construction of weirs in the second half of the 13th century up to approximately the 15th century. Some of the sediments are older and from Early Medieval times (the oldest from the end of the 10th century). For the pollen analysis, three types of sediment were studied: flood loams, cultural layers and material deposited on causeways. Thanks to the diversity in the sediments it was possible to study local and regional components of the pollen spectra in more detail. The vegetation growing in the old river channel consisted of ruderal and weed taxa with sedge stands surviving in less accessible places. This locality most probably did not serve as a dumping ground until at least the 14th century, and even then this is not directly indicated by the pollen analysis. The difficulty of interpreting the mixed-origin pollen spectra usually present in urban archaeobotanical deposits is a common problem. Using multivariate statistics, three groups of pollen taxa characteristic for each particular sediment type were separated, and the individual pollen sources (and corresponding taphonomical processes) partly separated. Therefore, it was possible to distinguish autochthonous and allochthonous sources of pollen and draw conclusions about the local vegetation at this site.

Šilc U. & Čarni A. (2007): Formalized classification of the weed vegetation of arable land in Slovenia. – Preslia 79: 283–302.
A phytosociological synthesis of weed vegetation in Slovenia using the Braun-Blanquet approach was performed. Historical and new data (482 relevés after stratified resampling) were used and classified formally using the Cocktail method. Eleven different syntaxa: Kickxietum spuriae, Galio tricornuti-Ranunculetum arvensis, Geranio-Allietum, Mercurialietum annuae, Veronicetum trilobae-triphyllidi, Alchemillo-Matricarietum, basal community Alchemilla arvensis-[Scleranthion annui], Panico-Chenopodietum, Hyoscyamo-Chenopodietum hybridi, Galeopsido-Galinsogetum, Echinochloo-Setarietum were distinguished and are presented in a synoptic table. Ecology, diagnostic and constant species, distribution and threats to weed syntaxa are presented. Delimitation of the high-mountain association Galeopsido-Galinsogetum presents problems as it is species-poor and is composed of generalist species. Some problems of using the Cocktail method to classify species poor stands are pointed out. Comparison of classified syntaxa and their diagnostic species in Slovenian and Moravian datasets shows that there are in both areas common central asociations of higher syntaxa, which are widely distributed in Central Europe: Veronicetum trilobae-triphyllidi, Alchemillo-Matricarietum, Panico-Chenopodietum and Echinochloo-Setarietum. There are differences in various classifications of vernal communities and those that thrive in only one area.

Sádlo J., Chytrý M. & Pyšek P. (2007): Regional species pools of vascular plants in habitats of the Czech Republic. – Preslia 79: 303–321.
Based on a combination of data from the Czech National Phytosociological Database and expert knowledge, a database of vascular plant species pools for 88 habitats, representative of the diversity of Czech vegetation, was compiled. This database contains 1820 native species, 249 archaeophytes and 278 neophytes, each assigned to one or more habitats. Besides the data on species occurrence in different habitats, the database contains information on a species’ ecological optimum in the habitat or its dominance. The largest pools of native species were found in rather rare habitats of dry and warm herbaceous or woody habitats at low altitudes, some of which contain > 530 species (maximum of 695 species for thermophilous forest fringes). These were followed by common habitats on mesic soils. The smallest pools of native species were in saline, aquatic and bog habitats (< 90 species). Species pool sizes of archaeophytes and neophytes for different habitats were positively, yet weakly, correlated with the species pool sizes of native species. Habitats with native species pools < 350 species contained any number of archaeophytes. Habitats with < 100 native species contained < 5, and often no neophytes, but habitats with 100–350 native species contained different numbers of neophytes. Habitats with > 350 native species always contained > 5 archaeophytes and > 5 neophytes, and often many more. Two hundred and thirty two native species, 18 archaeophytes and 30 neophytes were identified as potential dominants in at least one habitat. However, potentially dominant species made up less than 3% of the species pool for 78 out of 88 habitats. Larger percentages (up to 14.6%) of potential dominants were included in habitats with small species pools and species-poor stands (e.g., aquatic, saline and mire habitats). The number of habitats in which a species occurred was used as a measure of its ecological range. Most ecological generalists were found among the native species, less among the archaeophytes and least among the neophytes. Out of the 36 species that occur as dominants in three or more habitats, 34 were native (many are grasses), onewas an archaeophyte (Cirsium arvense) and one was a neophyte (Impatiens parviflora).

Kirschner J., Kirschnerová L. & Štěpánek J. (2007): Generally accepted plant names based on material from the Czech Republic and published in 1753–1820. – Preslia 79: 323–365.
Plant names based on the original material from a restricted region are scientifically important for the study of local biodiversity. Names typified with or entirely based on the original material from the Czech Republic are studied in the present paper; the names are confined to cases of generally accepted names published and taxa described in the period 1753–1820. Some names with original material coming from a border region (mostly near the Polish border) are included, too. Brief notes and references are given to introduce the authors of names and the history of their herbarium collections. New data are given on publications and herbaria of F.W. Schmidt, T. Haenke and J. E. Pohl, including examples of their handwritings; the other authors being C. Linnaeus (and J. Burser), J. Zauschner, K. L.Willdenow, J. C. Mikan, K. Sternberg, H. A. Schrader, L. Trattinick, K. B. Presl, J. S. Presl, P. M. Opiz, I. F. Tausch and H. G. L. Reichenbach. Nomenclatural and taxonomic notes are given on Aconitum plicatum, Allium senescens subsp. montanum, Gagea bohemica, Plantago uliginosa, Spergularia salina, Valeriana officinalis, V. exaltata, V. sambucifolia and Veronica triloba. A number of names are typified (lecto-, neo- , epitypes): Allium montanum, Athyrium distentifolium, Erysimum arcuatum (= Barbarea vulgaris subsp. arcuata), Schmidtia (= Coleanthus) subtilis, Epilobium nutans, Ornithogalum bohemicum (= Gagea bohemica), Hieracium sudeticum, Myosotis sparsiflora, Cynoglossum (= Omphalodes) scorpioides, Pedicularis sudetica, Phyteuma nigrum, Plantago uliginosa (with an identification key), Poa laxa, Soldanella montana, Symphytum bohemicum, Thlaspi caerulescens, Valeriana exaltata (with notes on the typification of V. officinalis), V. sambucifolia, Veronica triloba (with a note on the status of names in Čelakovský‘s works), Viola sudetica and V. saxatilis. The other names included in the list are Avenula planiculmis, Cardamine amara subsp. opicii, Eriophorum vaginatum, Hieracium rupestre (= H. schmidtii), Luzula sudetica, Mentha longifolia, Potentilla lindackeri, Rosa elliptica, Salix silesiaca, Stipa capillata and Viola rupestris. A few cases of names excluded from the list are also analysed: Achillea millefolium subsp. sudetica, Alchemilla fissa, Carex bohemica, Dactylorhiza longebracteata, Gagea pusilla, Geranium bohemicum, Matricaria recutita, Veronica dentata, Spergularia salina (correct name: S. marina), Gentianella obtusifolia, Myosotis alpestris and Mentha rotundifolia. For most cases, conservation status and situation at the original localities (in many cases in protected areas) are discussed.

Fér T., Vašák P., Vojta J. & Marhold K. (2007): Out of the Alps or Carpathians? Origin of Central European populations of Rosa pendulina. – Preslia 79: 367–376.
The phylogeographical structure of the temperate shrub Rosa pendulina at 45 locations in Europe was studied using sequencing of a non-coding cpDNA region (trnL-trnF). Our study revealed a clear geographic structure of cpDNA haplotypes. Three main haplotypes were geographically widespread, but showed little overlap in their distributions, suggesting that postglacial expansion occurred from at least two distinct glacial refugia, probably located (1) at the edge of the Alps, N Apennines or Dinaric Alps, and (2) in the Balkan Peninsula or S Carpathians. All populations at locations in the Czech Republic and surrounding regions are of Carpathian origin. This finding disproved an Alpine origin of R. pendulina populations in the Šumava Mts (Czech Republic). A contact zone between Carpathian and Alpine migration routes of R. pendulina is probably located in the Danube valley.

Essl F. (2007): From ornamental to detrimental? The incipient invasion of Central Europe by Paulownia tomentosa. – Preslia 79: 377–389.
The invasion of Paulownia tomentosa (Paulowniaceae), a new alien tree species in Central Europe, native to China, is analysed. By using its distribution in Austria, the invasion of this country is analysed in detail. The first reports of P. tomentosa in Austria were in the 1960s in Vienna. Since then, the number of sites has increased exponentially, with a total of 151 sites in 27 grid cells of the Floristic Mapping project of Austria. The number of sites per grid cell is strongly positively correlated with the minimum residence time in grid cell, which explains 86% of the deviance in the general linear model (GLM). The localities are confined to warm lowland areas (below 450 m altitude) and are concentrated in cities, with 90% of all localities recorded in cities with > 100,000 inhabitants. Paulownia tomentosa typically occurs in small populations of less then 10 individuals (83% of all records) and behaves as a pioneer species colonizing mainly disturbed urban habitats. Near-natural habitats, e.g. forest clearings and riparian shrubberies are rarely colonized. In extremely disturbed areas, the average number of vascular plant species is low (8.9 species), as is total plant cover (17%). As P. tomentosa is currently mostly confined to synanthropic habitats in urban areas, the invasion is not yet a nature conservation issue. In the future, predicted climate change might allow P. tomentosa to spread beyond its current distribution. The habitat preference in the eastern USA indicates that further spread of P. tomentosa in Central Europe might be accompanied by a switch to more natural habitats, e.g. forest clearings and forest margins. Thus, the future spread of this species should be closely monitored.

Ewald J. (2007): Bimodal spectra of nutrient indicators reveal abrupt eutrophication of pine forests. – Preslia 79: 391–400.
Five hundred and eight phytosociological relevés from pine forests on sand, calcareous gravel and rock in NE and S Germany were analysed with respect to the frequency of Ellenberg indicator values of vascular plants for nutrients (N). Principal component analysis revealed that after the average nitrogen value (mN), the distribution shape and modality are the second most important sources of variation in the N-spectra of relevés. Of the five spectral types defined by combinations of mN and modality, the unimodal low nutrient type (66.5%) prevailed, followed by bimodal distributions with many indicators for low and high N-supply, with few in the intermediate classes 4 and 5 (27.4%), whereas spectra with a single mode at high (3.9%) or intermediate (2.2%) N- values were rare. Two explanations for the frequent coexistence of vascular plant indicators of N-deficiency with those indicating eutrophication are discussed: (a) Bimodality may be a consequence of the low capacity of pine forests to sequestre the excess input of anthropogenic nitrogen from the atmosphere, and/or (b) the natural dynamics of humus accumulation and mineralization following disturbance. To avoid misinterpretation of mN, inspection of modality of the N-spectra should be standard practice when analysing pine forest or other long-lived vegetation with low N-sequestration. Predominance of high N- over low N-indicators in relevés may be interpreted as a signal of advanced anthropogenic eutrophication, N-saturation and increased risk of N-leaching to groundwater. Bimodal spectra with prevailing deficiency indicators, on the other hand, may be either due to short-term N-release or indicate the beginning of eutrophication.

Neustupa J. & Škaloud P. (2007): Geometric morphometrics and qualitative patterns in the morphological variation of five species of Micrasterias (Zygnemophyceae, Viridiplantae). – Preslia 79: 401–417.
Geometric morphometric analyses were conducted on cultured populations of five Micrasterias species (M. crux-melitensis, M. papillifera, M. rotata, M. thomasiana, M. truncata). The patterns in the morphological variation measured using the morphospaces spanned by a PCA of morphometric data for individual populations were compared. In addition, the 18S rDNA sequences of these species are reported. The phenetic comparisons demonstrated the overall great similarity of morphometric indicators extracted from isolated polar lobe data and 18S rDNA genetic distances, and also indicated that the morphometric data of complete semicells were less well correlated with 18S rDNA distances. The phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of the Micrasterias sequences into two clades, which correspond to qualitative patterns in the morphological variation of isolated polar lobe data. We propose that patterns of variation in the polar lobes of Micrasterias should be used in phenotype analyses of morphologically closely similar or cryptic species.


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