Copyright © Czech Botanical Society

Abstracts of volume 81, 2009

Těšitel J., Malinová T., Štech M. & Herbstová M. (2009): Variation in the Melampyrum sylvaticum group in the Carpathian and Hercynian region: two lineages with different evolutionary histories. – Preslia 81: 1–22.
We investigated variation in the Melampyrum sylvaticum group in the Carpathian and Hercynian regions using morphological and molecular tools. The aim of our study was to examine differences in the pattern of variation between the Eastern Carpathians and region of theWestern Carpathians and the Hercynian Massif. We also tested correlations between putatively taxonomically important variation in corolla colour present in the Melampyrum sylvaticum group in the Eastern Carpathian region and other morphological and molecular traits. Samples were collected from populations of the M. sylvaticum group in the Hercynian Massif and the Eastern and Western Carpathians. Morphometric analyses of the size and shape of the corolla (based on thin plate spline with sliding semilandmarks), length of the anthers and especially molecular analyses based on sequencing the nuclear ITS and trnL-trnT regions of chloroplast DNA, confirmed that the populations occurring on the opposite sides of the Eastern-Western Carpathian biogeographic boundary are very different. It is likely that the eastern and western lineages have been isolated for a long time and the extant pattern of variation with character disagreement within the border zone, originated from hybridization and introgression. The differences in corolla colour did not coincide with the variation in morphological traits or molecular markers within the North-Eastern Carpathian region. In addition, the geographical distribution of the populations with contrasting corolla colours lacked any pattern and there are populations with both corolla colours as well as plants with transitional pale-yellow flowers. Therefore, it is suggested that M. saxosum and M. herbichii, microspecies delimited on the basis of corolla colour, are conspecific. The high level of molecular variation and its pattern indicate that the M. sylvaticum group may have survived in or near the Eastern Carpathians during the Weichselian Ice Age. This hypothesis is supported by several recent phytogeographical and palaeoecological studies, which indicate the existence of a glacial refuge in the Eastern Carpathian region. Molecular uniformity of theWestern Carpathian and Hercynian populations might in contrast indicate recent (Holocene) migration from assumed perialpine refuges.

Šingliarová B. & Mráz P. (2009): A taxonomic revision of the Pilosella alpicola group in the Carpathians. – Preslia 81: 23–41.
A taxonomic study of the Pilosella alpicola group growing in the Carpathians revealed the presence of two morphologically distinguishable taxa: P. ullepitschii (Błocki) Szeląg and P. rhodopea (Griseb.) Szeląg. While P. ullepitschii is endemic to the Carpathians, P. rhodopea is a Balkan subendemic with two isolated localities in the Southern Carpathians (Mt Cozia and Mt Zmeuretu). The core area of distribution of P. ullepitchii is the natural subalpine and alpine meadows of the Western Carpathians (the Vysoké and Západné Tatry Mts in Slovakia and Poland). In addition, only three isolated localities are known from the Nemira Mts (Romanian Eastern Carpathians) and one from the Bucegi Mts (Romanian Southern Carpathians). Interestingly, the Romanian populations occur in man-made habitats (secondary pastures). Karyological and flow cytometric analyses of 305 plants from 13 populations of P. ullepitschii revealed only diploid plants (2n = 2x = 18). One Carpathian population of P. rhodopea from Mt Cozia is also diploid. This is the first report of diploidy in this species. However, the populations from the main part of the distribution of this taxon in the Balkan mountains include other cytotypes. Detailed morphological descriptions and distributions for both taxa are given.

Lepší M. & Lepší P. (2009): Rubus silvae-norticae, a new species from Bohemia, Austria and Bavaria and the significance of brambles for regional migrations. – Preslia 81: 43– 62.
A new bramble species, Rubus silvae-norticae, section Rubus, subsection Hiemales E. H. L. Krause in Prahl, series Micantes Sudre, which occurs in S Bohemia, Upper Austria and Lower Bavaria, is described. It is recorded at 130 localities. The distance between the most remote localities is ca 100 km. The species grows most frequently in forest habitats (as a distinctly nemophilous ecoelement) such as ditches and edges of forest roads, plantations, forest margins and clearings. It mainly grows in mesic, acid and mineral-poor soils. Like, for example, R. clusii or R. ser. Glandulosi and unlike other relatively thermophilous Rubus species, it is able to grow and propagate itself at rather high altitudes, up to the mountain vegetation belt. The diagnostic characters that separate R. silvae-norticae from its most similar and sympatrically occurring species, R. clusii and R. muhelicus, are provided. In Austria R. silvae-norticae and some other brambles were mistakenly considered as R. helveticus, a bramble (probably a single biotype) described from Switzerland in 1870. The lectotype of Rubus helveticus is designated here and a photograph of the specimen presented. Also included is a distribution map of R. silvae-norticae, a list of revised herbarium specimens, a photograph of the type specimen and a pen drawing of the species. The significance of regional brambles for plant migrations and phytogeography is shown, based on the distribution of selected regional Rubus species occurring in the Czech and Austrian border area, which is a known mountain barrier to migration. The distribution patterns of the brambles support a theory about the routes of plant migration and the florogenetic connection between Austria and the Czech Republic. Rubus silvae-norticae, R. muhelicus and R. vestitus f. albiflorus are regarded as Danubian migrants (distributed from Upper Austria to S Bohemia), whereas R. gothicus s. l. (“south Moravian type”) and R. austromoravicus are considered to be Dyje-Kamp migrants (distributed from Moravia and Lower Austria to S Bohemia) within the Bohemian flora. Rubus kletensis is supposed to be a Vltava migrant within the Austrian flora (distributed from S Bohemia to Upper Austria).

Lepší M., Vít P., Lepší P., Boublík K. & Kolář F. (2009): Sorbus portae-bohemicae and Sorbus albensis, two new endemic apomictic species recognized based on a revision of Sorbus bohemica. – Preslia 81: 63–89.
Two new apomictic triploid (2n = 3x = 51) species from the Sorbus latifolia group, S. portae-bohemicae M. Lepší, P. Lepší, P. Vít et K. Boublík and S. albensis M. Lepší, K. Boublík, P. Lepší et P. Vít, putative hybridogenous species originated from a cross between S. danubialis and S. torminalis, are distinguished and described based on a taxonomic and chorological revision of Sorbus bohemica (a hybridogenous triploid species from the same parental combination). A number of contemporary biosystematic techniques, including molecular (nuclear microsatellite markers), karyological (chromosome counts, DAPI flow cytometry) and multivariate and geometric morphometrics were used to assess the variation of the species and justify their independent taxonomic status. All three species occur sympatrically in the České středohoří Mts (NW Bohemia). Sorbus bohemica is recorded from 31 localities, based on a revision of herbarium vouchers and field research. Recent field studies failed to verify five of these localities. Sorbus portae-bohemicae is a stenoendemic in the Porta bohemica gorge (situated ca 7 km WNW of Litoměřice) where it grows in open oak forests (Luzulo-Quercetum and transition vegetation type to Melampyro nemorosi-Carpinetum) on ENE-facing slopes and rocks. The only known population of S. portae-bohemicae consists of 14 adult individuals. Sorbus albensis occurs at 12 localities W to NW of Litoměřice. The total number of individuals is estimated at 600. Most are in acidophilous oak forests (Luzulo-Quercetum and its mesic derivatives), scree forests (Aceri-Carpinetum) or shrubby slopes (Pruno-Ligustretum, Antherico-Coryletum). Populations of the new taxa show little genetic variation and are phenotypically homogenous and well separated from other Bohemian hybridogenous Sorbus species. A distribution map of the three species is provided. Photographs of the type specimens and in situ fructiferous individuals of the new species are presented.

Başnou C., Pino J. & Šmilauer P. (2009): Effect of grazing on grasslands in the Western Romanian Carpathians depends on the bedrock type. – Preslia 81: 91–104.
This study correlated the floristic composition of grassland communities with environmental variation in the Western Romanian Carpathians, focusing on the effect of grazing. Grasslands were sampled using 231 plots each 0.25 km2 in area. Vascular flora, altitude, aspect, slope, bedrock and grazing intensity were recorded for each plot. Data were processed using direct gradient analyses (CCA) and a generalized linear model. The results revealed three distinct communities associated with bedrock, landscape topography and grazing intensity. Grazing changes the floristic composition of grasslands on limestone more than on other types of bedrock. Specifically the floristic composition of the limestone-area plots subjected to low grazing pressure differ significantly from that of the plots of grassland on flysch and volcanic bedrock. When intensively grazed, the floristic composition of chalk grassland does not differ from that of the lightly grazed vegetation growing on flysch or volcanic bedrock. The reasons for this pattern and implications for management are discussed.

Bastl M., Štechová T. & Prach K. (2009): Effect of disturbance on the vegetation of peat bogs with Pinus rotundata in the Třeboň Basin, Czech Republic. – Preslia 81: 105–117.
Various stages in the succession of vegetation of peat bogs following disturbance were studied in the Třeboň Basin, Czech Republic. The disturbance was of two types: (a) natural, represented by windthrow, with subsequent bark beetle attack, and fire, and (b) human-made peat digging and industrial peat milling. The species composition at different stages in succession following disturbance were compared with that in undisturbed plots. Regeneration of peat bog vegetation was faster after a natural than after human-made disturbance. The lowest impact was caused by windthrow, followed by fire. Regeneration after peat digging took much longer. Regeneration after industrial peat harvesting only occurred if the groundwater table level remained high.

Essl F., Dullinger S. & Kleinbauer I. (2009): Changes in the spatio-temporal patterns and habitat preferences of Ambrosia artemisiifolia during its invasion of Austria. – Preslia 81: 119–133.
The invasion of Austria by the alien vascular plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae) is analysed in detail, based on a survey of available records. In total, 697 records were collated. The first record for Austria is a herbarium specimen collected in 1883. Up to the end of the 1940s, records were rare and only of casual populations resulting from long-distance dispersal. Since the 1950s, the number of records has increased exponentially, and more than one third of all records (242) were collected in the last 5-year period (2001–2005) included in the survey. The first naturalized population was recorded in 1952, nearly 70 years after the first record of a casual population. Recently, the number of naturalized populations increased considerably faster than that of casual populations. Several pathways (contaminated crops and bird seed, agricultural machines, transport of soil) have contributed to the high levels of propagule pressure and this successful invasion. Ambrosia artemisiifolia has undergone a niche expansion during the invasion process. Up to 1950, most records were from sites along railway routes, whereas in the period 1950–1974 itwas mostly ruderal habitats, not associated with traffic infrastructure, which were colonized. Since the 1970s, records from roadsides have increased strongly and now dominate. Fields were colonized first in the 1970s and since then have gained in importance. The distribution of naturalized populations was related to environmental and climatic variables by means of a generalized linear model. Their distribution in Austria is closely related to temperature. Landscape variables, describing aspects of habitat availability (topography, land use, major street density) also significantly explain the current distribution of A. artemisiifolia. Suitable habitats currently occur mainly in the eastern and southeastern lowlands. We conclude that global warming will disproportionally enhance the invasion success of A. artemisiifolia in Austria, even if there is only a slight increase in temperature, as significant areas of agricultural land in Austria are currently only slightly too cool for A. artemisiifolia. The widespread occurrence of this species will have serious consequences for human health and agriculture.

Čtvrtlíková M., Vrba J., Znachor P. & Hekera P. (2009): Effects of aluminium toxicity and low pH on the early development of Isoëtes echinospora. – Preslia 81: 23–41.
A relict population of Isoëtes echinospora Durieu survived a thirty-year period of severe acidification and high concentrations of phytotoxic aluminium (Al) in Plešné Lake (Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic). The population consisted of only adult plants. Sporeling survival and age structure were examined during the population recovery in 2004–2008. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effect of various pH values (4–8) and Al concentrations (0–1000 µg·l–1) on sporeling development. The responses of the sporelings to the experimental treatments were evaluated and compared with those observed in the lake. The experiments showed that an Al concentration higher than 300 µg·l–1, and high acidity (pH 4), inhibit sporeling growth, in particular resulted in a pronounced reduction in absorptive organs (macrogametophyte rhizoids, roots and root hairs). With increasing concentrations of Al and at pH 4, the ratio of the below-ground to above-ground sporeling biomass decreased to less than 1. The responses of the lake sporelings, rooting in the upper sediment layer, were similar to those exposed to 100–300 µg·l–1 of Al in the laboratory, and reflected the Al toxicity of the lake water. The quillworts at Plešné Lake survived because adult plants can tolerate these adverse conditions and are very long-lived. The population recovered when the pH of the water increased to over 5 and the Al concentration decreased to below 300 µg·l–1.

Danihelka J., Niklfeld H. & Šípošová H. (2009): Viola elatior, V. pumila and V. stagnina in Austria, Czechia and Slovakia: a story of decline. – Preslia 81: 151–171.
Specimens of Viola elatior (VE), V. pumila (VP) and V. stagnina (VS) in 40 Austrian, Czech and Slovak public herbaria were revised, a total of almost 1750 specimens from the three countries. Apart from VE, the quality of the original identifications was rather poor, especially of VS, which was frequently confused with VP and V. canina. This, together with the confusion of nomenclature that persisted during the 19th century, made the old literature records unreliable. Hybrids are usually difficult to identify and are rarer than generally believed. VS and VP have similar distribution patterns: they occur mainly on floodplains of large lowland rivers and in adjacent hills in the N part of Bohemia, S and Central Moravia, E Austria and S Slovakia; they may be classified as river corridor plants. VS differs from VE and VP mainly by its presence in S Bohemia and its absence from large parts of S Slovakia, as well as its rarity in Austria and Slovakia. All three species grow predominantly in regions with a relatively warm and dry climate: most localities are situated in regions with a mean annual temperature of 7–11 °C and mean annual precipitation 401–700 mm. A temporal analysis of records revealed that all three species are declining in all three countries: generally, this decline is weakest in Austria, with 46–61% of grid cells with occurrences confirmed after 1980 (compared with the number of grid cells with records for 1801–2008), and strongest in Slovakia, with 18–32% of grid cells with occurrences confirmed after 1980. The decline is due mainly to the canalization of rivers and subsequent changes in land use, urbanization and recently afforestation. VE may also be endangered by modern forestry practices. The inclusion of all three species in national Red Lists and subsequent conservation measures are justified and necessary, though national Red List status may differ between countries.

Schaminée J. H. J., Hennekens S. M., Chytrý M. & Rodwell J. S. (2009): Vegetation-plot data and databases in Europe: an overview. – Preslia 81: 173–185.
During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots, mainly phytosociological relevés, were established in different European countries. These databases contain information which is extremely valuable for both testing various macroecological hypotheses and for nature conservation surveying or monitoring. The aim of this paper is to provide estimates of the number of vegetation plots there are in Europe, how many are stored in an electronic format and to assess their distribution across European countries and regions.We sent a questionnaire to the managers of national or regional databases of vegetation plots and other prominent vegetation ecologists. Meta-data obtained in this way indicate that there are > 4,300,000 vegetation-plot records in Europe, of which > 1,800,000 are already stored electronically. Of the electronic plots, 60% are stored in TURBOVEG databases. Most plot records probably exist in Germany, the Netherlands, France, Poland, Spain, Czech Republic, Italy, UK, Switzerland and Austria. The largest numbers of plots per unit area are in the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark and countries of central Europe. The most computerized plots per country exist in the Netherlands (600,000), followed by France, the Czech Republic and the UK. Due to its strong phytosociological tradition, Europe has many more vegetation plots than any other part of the world. This wealth of unique ecological information is a challenge for future biodiversity studies. With the alarming loss in biodiversity and environmental problems like global warming and ongoing changes in land use, there is an urgent need for wide-scale scientific and applied vegetation research. Developments of information systems such as SynBioSys Europe and facilitation of data flow between the national and regional databases should make it easier to use these vegetation-plot data.

Chytrý M., Wild J., Pyšek P., Tichý L., Danihelka J. & Knollová I. (2009): Maps of the level of invasion of the Czech Republic by alien plants. – Preslia 81: 187–207.
A series of maps showing the level of invasion of the Czech Republic by alien plants was developed based on a quantitative assessment of the level of invasion of 35 terrestrial habitat types at different altitudes. The levels of invasion were quantified for 18,798 vegetation plots, using two measures: proportion of the species that are aliens and total cover of alien species. Separate assessments were made for archaeophytes and neophytes. Within each habitat, the level of invasion was related to altitude using generalized linear models. The level of invasion, depending on the measure used, decreased with altitude in 16 out of 20 habitats for archaeophytes and 18 out of 23 for neophytes. In two habitats, one measure of the level of invasion increased with altitude for archaeophytes. The values of the level of invasion predicted by generalized linear models for particular combinations of habitats and altitudes were projected onto a land-cover map and digital elevation map of the country. Four maps showing the level of invasion were produced, based on the proportion of the species that are archaeophytes or neophytes, and cover of archaeophytes and neophytes. The maps show that both archaeophytes and neophytes are most common in lowland agricultural and urban areas, whereas they are sparsely represented in mountainous areas. At middle altitudes, agricultural areas are more invaded than forested areas. Outside agricultural and urban areas, high levels of invasion are found especially in lowland sandy areas and river corridors.

Kuneš P., Abraham V., Kovářík O., Kopecký M. & PALYCZ contributors (2009): Czech Quaternary Palynological Database – PALYCZ: review and basic statistics of the data. – Preslia 81: 209–238.
This paper reviews the data on quaternary palynological sequences collected in the Czech Republic, attempts to store them in the Czech Quaternary Palynological Database (PALYCZ) and outlines a possible use for regional syntheses. Work on pollen stratigraphies done over the last hundred years has yielded a very large amount of data for this region. These data can be used globally for various types of environmental reconstructions and are of local importance, especially when combined with local databases. For data to be included in PALYCZ it has to meet certain criteria, the determination of the pollen of herbaceous plants must be well resolved and radiocarbon dated. As of 31 December 2008, we had reviewed 177 pollen profiles. Data from 152 sequences are already stored in PostgreSQL® in relational tables, which allow a broad range of queries to be addressed using the html protocol. The data collected since 1959 by 15 authors contain raw pollen counts together with 14C dates and various metadata on locality. All the pollen samples were ordered using non-metric multidimensional scaling. Display of the ordination diagram incorporating the appropriate millennial time slices revealed a common pattern in all data. The quality of data is also discussed in the context of the history of the research and methods used. Database access can be found at

Illyés E., Bauer N. & Botta-Dukát Z. (2009): Classification of semi-dry grassland vegetation in Hungary. – Preslia 81: 239–260.
Semi-dry grasslands are of high nature conservation interest both at national and European scales due to their high biodiversity and species richness. For effective conservation, however, the variation in floristic composition and distribution of these grasslands need first to be described. In Hungary, there is currently no comprehensive survey and classification of semi-dry grasslands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to (i) describe the variation in species composition of Hungarian semi-dry grasslands by a country-scale cluster analysis based on a large database; (ii) describe the types (clusters) and compare these descriptions with those in the phytosociological literature, and finally (iii) formulate a new syntaxonomical system for Hungarian semi-dry grasslands. For this analysis 699 relevés were selected in which the percentage cover of at least one of the grasses Brachypodium pinnatum, Bromus erectus, Danthonia alpina, Avenula adsurgens, A. pubescens or A. compressa reached >10%. A geographical stratification of the dataset was performed and then it was split randomly into two equal parts (training and test datasets). Following outlier exclusion and noise elimination, clustering was performed separately for both datasets. The optimal number of clusters was determined by validation. The number of valid clusters was the highest at the level of ten clusters, where seven clusters appeared to be valid. The valid clusters are separated geographically; however, there are considerable overlaps in the species compositions. According to our results, all the grasslands belong to the Cirsio-Brachypodion alliance. The seven valid clusters are assigned to five main groups of semi-dry grasslands in Hungary: 1. Brachypodium pinnatum (and partly Bromus erectus) dominated, species rich meadow-steppe-like grasslands occurring on deep loess in central Pannonia, identified as Euphorbio pannonicae-Brachypodietum Horváth 2009; 2. Brachypodium pinnatum dominated mountain grasslands restricted to the Bükk Mountains; identified as Polygalo majoris-Brachypodietum Wagner 1941; 3. mostly Bromus erectus dominated grasslands on shallow, calcium/rich soils of the Dunántúl region, proposed as a new association Sanguisorbo minoris-Brometum erecti Illyés, Bauer & Botta-Dukát 2009; 4. Brachypodium pinnatum and Danthonia alpina dominated stands occurring mainly in the Északi-középhegység Mts, characterized by species of nutrient poor soils, proposed as a new association Trifolio medii-Brachypodietum pinnati Illyés, Bauer & Botta-Dukát 2009; 5. transition towards meadows and successional stands dominated mainly by Brachypodium pinnatum.

Ekrt L., Trávníček P., Jarolímová V., Vít P. & Urfus T. (2009): Genome size and morphology of the Dryopteris affinis group in Central Europe. – Preslia 81: 261–280.
The agamosporous and taxonomically critical Dryopteris affinis group was investigated as part of a cytogeographic and morphometric study of ferns in Central Europe. Material from 27 localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Austria was sampled and evaluated using both morphometric multivariate and karyological analyses. Chromosome counts and flow cytometric analyses revealed the existence of two distinct triploid taxa (2n = 123) of differing genome size, which correspond to D. borreri and D. cambrensis, and of a rare pentaploid hybrid (2n = 205) D. ×critica (D. borreri × D. filix-mas). Morphometric analyses confirmed a clear separation between both triploid taxa. New quantitative characters were selected based on a discriminant analyses, and a key for the identification of the species is presented.

Zalewska-Gałosz J., Ronikier M. & Kaplan Z. (2009): The first European record of Potamogeton ×subobtusus identified using ITS and cpDNA sequence data. – Preslia 81: 281–292.
A combined study of morphology, stem anatomy and DNA sequencing data (nuclear ribosomal ITS region and rpl32-trnL and rps12-rpl20 intergenic spacers of chloroplast DNA) was used to identify a putative Potamogeton hybrid from a river in NE Poland. Based on the morphological and anatomical characters the plants were tentatively identified as P. ×subobtusus Hagstr., a hybrid between P. alpinus Balb. and P. nodosus Poir. This identification was independently confirmed by the presence in hybrid individuals of an additive ITS sequence pattern from these two parental species. In all plants peaks corresponding to nucleotide states of both parents were clearly distinguishable, however the variants from P. nodosus dominated over those from P. alpinus. P. nodosus was also identified as the maternal parent of the hybrid based on cpDNA data and dominated the expression of morphological features in hybrid individuals. A detailed morphological description of P. × subobtusus and the typification of the name are provided. As P. nodosus rarely hybridizes with other species, existence of other hybrids, as well as possible difficulties in recognizing these taxa are also discussed.

Letz D. R. (2009): A new species of the Sempervivum marmoreum group in Central Europe. – Preslia 81: 293–308.
A comparative study of material of Sempervivum marmoreum Griseb. from the type locality (Mt Athos, Greece) and the northern part of its distribution revealed a distinct morphotype occurring in an isolated enclave along the Slovak–Hungarian border. As its karyotype differs it is formally described here as a new species – Sempervivum matricum Letz. The name Sempervivum assimile Schott, formerly considered as a possible name for this species is here critically examined. A morphological characterization of the new species, photographs of the plant and a distribution map based on revised herbarium specimens are provided.

Hülber K., Sonnleitner M., Flatscher R., Berger A., Dobrovsky R., Niessner S., Nigl T., Schneeweiss G. M., Kubešová M., Rauchová J., Suda J. & Schönswetter P. (2009): Ecological segregation drives fine-scale cytotype distribution of Senecio carniolicus in the Eastern Alps. – Preslia 81: 309–319.
In order to uncover patterns and processes of segregation of co-existing cytotypes, we investigated a zone in the eastern Alps (Austria) where diploid and hexaploid individuals of the alpine herb Senecio carniolicus Willd. (Asteraceae) co-occur. Linking the fine-scale distribution of cytotypes to environmental and spatial factors revealed segregation along an ecological gradient, which was also reflected in the cytotype-associated plant assemblages. Compared to diploids, hexaploids are found in more species-rich and denser communities. This may be due to their better competitive ability and lower tolerance of abiotic stress compared to the diploids. The lack of any intermediate cytotypes suggests the presence of strong reproductive isolation mechanisms, whose nature is, however, elusive.

Karlík P. & Poschlod P. (2009): History or abiotic filter: which is more important in determining the species composition of calcareous grasslands? – Preslia 81: 321–340.
Dry calcareous grassland is one of the most species-rich and endangered ecosystem in Central Europe. Despite the dramatic loss of grassland in the second half of the 20th century due to abandonment of agricultural land or afforestation, new grasslands developed on former arable land. The main objective of this studywas to assess the effect of age on the vegetation and habitat properties of calcareous grasslands. We found that the history (former land use, age of habitats) of grassland localities has had a fundamental effect both on the species composition of the vegetation and habitat properties. Significant differences were found, especially in soil reaction and water-holding capacity. Therefore, we can state that both history and habitat properties determine the recent species composition pattern. Consequently, it was possible to identify species indicating the historical status of the grasslands. Indicators of ancient grassland (i.e., patches continuously used as pastures at least since 1830) could be assigned to typical Festuco-Brometea species but also more widespread grassland species such as Carex flacca, Buphthalmum salicifolium, Carlina vulgaris, Cirsium acaule, Hippocrepis comosa and Scabiosa columbaria. Indicators of recent grasslands (i.e., patches temporarily farmed as arable fields after 1830) belong to different phytosociological classes: Festuco-Brometea, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Trifolio-Geranietea sanguinei and Secalietea cerealis. Festuco-Brometea species restricted to recent grasslands were e.g. Thymus pulegioides subsp. carniolicus, Stachys alpina, Rhinanthus alectorolophus and Onobrychis viciifolia. The two latter species are survivors from the former arable cultivation, the first was an arable weed and the second a widespread fodder plant, but are now considered to be characteristic species of calcareous grasslands. Therefore, we claim that the occurrence of these species indicate calcareous grasslands that were previously arable fields and that recent grasslands are a monument to historical land use. Rare and/or endangered species were not only found in ancient but also in recent grasslands. Furthermore, recent grasslands have a high species diversity. Thus both, ancient and recent calcareous grasslands should be considered equally valuable from a nature-conservation point of view.

Štajerová K., Šmilauerová M. & Šmilauer P. (2009): Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of herbaceous invasive neophytes in the Czech Republic. – Preslia 81: 341–355.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is the most frequent and ancestral type of mycorrhizal symbiosis. It is estimated that at least 80% of terrestrial plant species are able to form a mutualistic relation with fungi. Consequently in the context of successful plant invasions, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may have a favourable if not a crucial role. The mycorrhizal status of 23 invasive species is reported here for the first time. This study also tested whether the intensity of mycorrhizal colonization of the roots of invasive species is related to that of the dominant species of invaded plant community. This is partly supported by our results when total percentages of mycorrhizal colonization were compared. In addition, the effect of habitat and community characteristics on the intensity of colonization of the roots of invasive species by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was tested and several significant correlations were revealed. At the among-species level, the total mycorrhizal colonization decreases and the relative arbuscular colonization increases in the roots of invasive species with increasing nitrogen availability in the habitat. Both these relations are significant after phylogenetic correction, which suggests this is an evolutionary adaptation. There are also negative correlations between the relative arbuscular colonization of invading species and the light and temperature demands of the species present in the community, and a positive correlation between the relative arbuscular colonization of the invaders and soil wetness. That all these relations are revealed at the within-species level possibly reflects differences among the habitats studied.

Perglová I., Pergl J., Skálová H., Moravcová L., Jarošík V. & Pyšek P. (2009): Differences in germination and seedling establishment of alien and native Impatiens species. – Preslia 81: 357–375.
Comparative studies of closely related species may provide useful insights into the effect of species traits on invasion success since some of the biases associated with multispecies studies, such as phylogenetic effects, are considerably reduced by virtue of the experimental design. In this study seed and seedling traits of three congeneric alien species in Europe, differing in their region of origin, invasion status and history (Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, I. capensis), were compared with the native I. noli-tangere in laboratory and common garden experiments. Seeds of I. glandulifera required the shortest period of stratification, germinated well both under laboratory and experimental garden conditions and the seedlings produced more biomass than those of the other species. Seeds of I. parviflora required a longer period of stratification, had the highest percentage germination but seedling emergence in the experimental garden was poorer than in I. glandulifera. Neither of these two species invasive in the Czech Republic formed soil seed banks. The native I. noli-tangere had the lowest percentage germination and formed a short-term persistent seed bank. Impatiens capensis germinated well in the laboratory, had the highest seedling emergence in the garden and its seed remained viable in the soil for three years. This indicates that in terms of germination and emergence, this species is comparable with the two invasive alien congeners and there appear to be no constraints to its invasion in the Czech Republic where it does not occur yet. Its absence may be due to a low propagule pressure; in the national flora I. capensis is listed as a potential future invader without mentioning it being cultivated in this country. Our results indicate that differences in the invasiveness of three alien species of balsams in the temperate zone of Central Europe can be attributed, at least in part, to their differing performances in the early stages of their life cycle. The short period of time required for seed stratification and the high seedling biomass of I. glandulifera might have increased its invasion potential compared to other Impatiens species occurring in the Czech Republic.

Gregor T. (2009): The distribution of Galeopsis ladanum in Germany based on an analysis of herbarium material is smaller than that indicated in plant atlases. – Preslia 81: 377–386.
The distribution of Galeopsis ladanum in Germany and adjacent regions was determined by a revision of specimens of Galeopsis subgen. Ladanum in major Central European herbaria. This distribution was compared with that indicated in plant atlases. For the west of Germany, beyond the range of G. ladanum, plant atlases are often misleading as they indicate the presence of this species throughout two German states and Luxembourg, but no herbarium records could be found for these regions. In other federal states, herbarium material indicated a historical distribution that is not reflected in plant atlases. Some Red Data Books give wrong assessments of the degree of endangerment. Exaggerated ranges are mapped if (i) guide books are misleading, (ii) recorders are unfamiliar with the species and (iii) similar species exist.

Kaplan Z. & Fehrer J. (2009): An orphaned clone of Potamogeton ×schreberi in the Czech Republic. – Preslia 81: 387–397.
A Potamogeton hybrid found growing in the absence of parental species in a South Bohemian stream, Czech Republic, was subjected to molecular analyses to identify its exact identity. RFLP of the ITS region confirmed its previous morphological identification as P. natans × P. nodosus (= P. ×schreberi). A comparison of its RFLP pattern with those of P. gramineus, P. lucens and P. polygonifolius unambiguously excluded the possibility that the investigated plants are specimens of other similar hybrids (P. ×fluitans, P. ×sparganiifolius, P. ×gessnacensis). The discovery of P. ×schreberi in South Bohemia is the first record of this hybrid for the Czech Republic. So far, it is known only from five countries and the Czech clone is one of a few extant clones of this hybrid in Central Europe. Chloroplast DNA sequencing identified P. nodosus as the maternal parent although at present this species neither occurs at the locality, nor upstream, nor in the entire drainage basin. The other species, P. natans, only occurs downstream of the locality in isolated side pools in a former stream bed and fishponds in an adjacent drainage basin. The available data indicate that this hybrid has persisted vegetatively at this locality for some time in the absence of its parents.

Košnar J. & Kolář F. (2009): A taxonomic study of selected European taxa of the Tortula muralis (Pottiaceae, Musci) complex: variation in morphology and ploidy level. – Preslia 81: 399–421.
Four European taxa of the Tortula muralis complex (T. lingulata, T. muralis var. aestiva, T. muralis var. muralis, T. obtusifolia) were evaluated using multivariate analysis of morphological characters, a cultivation experiment and cytological screening (flow cytometry, chromosome counts). This study revealed that only T. lingulata is morphologically well defined within the complex and several new sporophytic characters that can be used to distinguish this taxon from the superficially most similar T. obtusifolia. The traditionally recognized taxa T. muralis var. muralis, T. muralis var. aestiva and T. obtusifolia showed continuous variation, with frequent intermediate plants. However, the main character of the gametophyte used for determination (costa excurrency) proved to be stable in cultivation, indicating that this character is under genetic control. Additionally, rather complex and only partly species-specific patterns of ploidy variation were found within the complex. Tortula lingulata and T. obtusifolia appear to be cytologically homogeneous; plants of T. lingulata were found to be diploid, whereas plants tentatively named as T. obtusifolia were haploid. In contrast, both haploid and diploid cytotypes were found in both varieties of T. muralis, with a marked predominance of diploids in var. aestiva and less marked predominance of diploids in var. muralis. Current varietal level of the evaluated infraspecific taxa of T. muralis was thus found to be warranted. It is suggested that plants previously recognized as T. obtusifolia should be treated as a subspecies of T. muralis.

Rybníček K. & Rybníčková E. (2009): Precultural vegetation in the western foothills of the Kremnické vrchy Mts in central Slovakia and its transformation by man. – Preslia 81: 423–437.
Pollen and macroscopic analyses of two Upper Holocene spring fen sites in the vicinity of the Turček village in the south-western foothills of the Kremnické vrchy Mts (central Slovakia) revealed new and unique information on the precultural and natural climazonal forests, and the origin and development of local meadow fen vegetation. Pollen-analytical data indicate the prevalence of natural spruce (Picea abies) and fir (Abies alba) forests in this region. The mixed beech forests depicted on the geobotanical map of Slovakia must have, therefore occupied much smaller areas than previously thought. After human colonization of the region during the 13th and 14th centuries natural forests were transformed mainly into grasslands and pastures, and to a lesser extent into arable fields. These changes were connected with gold and silver mining in the vicinity of the nearby town of Kremnica, with Turček one of the important areas producing timber for the mining industry. The development of these fen mires is also connected with deforestation and transformation of the landscape. They originated as forest springs but after human colonization of the area they were transformed into treeless fen meadows by the direct or indirect effect of man cutting of trees, grazing livestock and mowing.


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