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Abstracts of volume 86, 2014

Roleček J., Čornej I. I. & Tokarjuk A. I. (2014): Understanding the extreme species richness of semi-dry grasslands in east-central Europe: a comparative approach. – Preslia 86: 13–34.
East-central European semi-dry grasslands hold several world records in small-scale vascular plant species richness. However, the reasons for the peculiarity of these grasslands are not well known, which hinders a better understanding of the mechanisms of species coexistence. We suggest that one of the reasons for this gap in our knowledge is the lack of basic information on the geographical distribution of these grasslands, their species richness, species composition and site conditions. Here we report new sites of extremely species-rich semi-dry grasslands in the foothills of the Eastern Carpathians in the south-western Ukraine. Using comparison with other sites with extremely species- rich semi-dry grasslands in the peri-Carpathian region and beyond, we show that these grasslands share many important features, including similar species composition, occurrence of species with disjunct distributions, site conditions, landscape context, long history of human influence and traditional management practice. Based on these findings, we suggest that continuity on a large (Pleistocene-Holocene) time scale and regularly practiced management that reduces the asymmetry in competition (typically mowing and absence of fertilizer application) may be the crucial factors responsible for the extremely high local species richness in east-central European semi-dry grasslands. We also suggest that this richness largely originates from an ancient pool of species of Eurasian forest-steppe and hemiboreal forests.
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Šilc U., Lososová Z. & Vrbničanin S. (2014): Weeds shift from generalist to specialist: narrowing of ecological niches along a north-south gradient. – Preslia 86: 35–46.
There are changes in the realized niches of species along environmental gradients, especially at the edge of their distribution where they become more specialized. A classical case is weeds of the Caucalidion alliance that spread with agriculture from the Fertile Crescent and thrive in a wide range of climates that differ from that prevailing in their native area. We used large data sets of vegetation collected in central Europe (3383 plots) and north-western Balkans (4505 plots) and used a co-occurrence species algorithm to calculate the specialist/generalist status of weed species. The change in the width of the ecological niches was tested using target species. Our assumptions were confirmed as the same characteristic species of Caucalidion weed vegetation in the north-western Balkans are more specialized in central Europe, where they occupy more basic habitats that vary less in terms of soil reaction. Testing niche theory using real data is especially important for nature conservation because specialists are more prone to decline in abundance or to go extinct.
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Purger D., Lengyel A., Kevey B., Lendvai G., Horváth A., Tomić Z. & Csiky J. (2014): Numerical classification of oak forests on loess in Hungary, Croatia and Serbia. – Preslia 86: 47–66.
Oak forests on loess are floristically one of the richest types of broadleaved forests and are among the most threatened types of natural habitats in the Carpathian Basin. They are classified in several communities in Hungary, Croatia and Serbia. These syntaxa are distinguished mostly on the basis of traditional phytosociological methods without comparison across a larger geographical scale. The recognition of some of these local syntaxa in the field, therefore, can be difficult, and the application of their names to communities in other areas may be questionable. The goal of this study was to develop an international typology for oak forests on loess based on a numerical analysis. A data set of 437 phytosociological relevés (stands of 12 associations from three countries) was stratified and 270 relevés were analysed using multivariate statistical methods. Six types were distinguished: Primula vulgaris type (xero-mesic to mesic sub-Mediterranean closed-canopy oak forests); Ruscus aculeatus type (xeric to xero-mesic sub-Mediterranean type); Vinca herbacea type (xeric continental open-canopy woodlands); Pulmonaria mollis type (xeric to mesic continental closed-canopy forests); Corydalis cava type (mesic closed-canopy oak forests in nutrient-rich habitats); and Stellaria media type (xeric to mesic oak forests in nutrient-rich habitats). The vegetation types identified are related to syntaxa traditionally recognized by phytosociologists. Our analysis did not support the distinction of some associations with local distributions. The geographical distributions of the two main forest types exhibited a gradient-like pattern in a north-east–south-west direction. The dry continental forest steppe woodland is mainly distributed in the north-eastern part of Hungary, whereas the xero-mesic sub-Mediterranean forests are restricted to the southwestern and southern part of our study area. This pattern corresponds to a climatic gradient from the North Hungarian Mts to north-eastern Croatia and northern Serbia.
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Otisková V., Koutecký T., Kolář F. & Koutecký P. (2014): Occurrence and habitat preferences of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes of Centaurea stoebe in the Czech Republic. – Preslia 86: 67–80.
Two ecologically and phenotypically distinct cytotypes, a diploid and tetraploid, are known in Centaurea stoebe. Diploids are widespread throughout Europe and occur mainly in semi-natural habitats (dry grasslands, rocky ledges, etc.). Tetraploids are probably native in south-eastern Europe and spreading in central and western Europe, where they frequently occur in man-made habitats (roads and railways, stone quarries, etc.). Tetraploids occur also in North America, where they rank among the most noxious invasive plants. Despite good knowledge on various life history traits and the invasiveness of tetraploids, detailed information on the distribution of cytotypes in its native range in Europe is still fragmentary and there is no karyological data on C. stoebe occurring in the Czech Republic. Using flow cytometric screening of 119 populations, we report for the first time the occurrence of both cytotypes in the Czech Republic and describe their habitat preferences. Diploids (94 localities) were more frequent than tetraploids (25 localities). Habitat preferences of the cytotypes confirmed the situation reported from other parts of central and western Europe: diploids markedly prevail in semi-natural habitats whereas tetraploids occupy mainly man-made habitats. The C. stoebe cytotypes can be distinguished as distinct subspecies and should be added to the current list of the Czech flora.
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Hašler P., Dvořák P. & Poulíčková A. (2014): A new genus of filamentous epipelic cyanobacteria, Johansenia. – Preslia 86: 81–94.
The cyanobacterial genus Komvophoron frequently inhabits sediments in stagnant freshwater among which K. hindakii and K. constrictum dominate. However, morphological heterogeneity within populations of K. constrictum necessitated a closer examination of this species’ taxonomic position. Based on Szafer’s (1910) concept, Oscillatoria constricta, later transferred to K. constrictum, is an oscillatorean cyanobacterium and does not form heterocytes. However, Geitler (1925) considers this species to be a member of the genus Anabaena due to the presence of heterocytes in some populations. We studied natural and cultured populations using morphological and molecular characters (e.g. the 16S rRNA gene and ITS region) and found that the genus Komvophoron is polyphyletic. Thus, we establish a new genus Johansenia gen. nov. based on Szafer’s original concept of Oscillatoria constricta. While Johansenia is phylogenetically related to the genera Spirulina and Geitlerinema (BBD strains), members of the genus Komvophoron (K. hindakii, K. kgarii) are related to members of the family Gomontiellaceae.
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Vít P., Wolfová K., Urfus T., Tájek P. & Suda J. (2014): Interspecific hybridization between rare and common plant congeners inferred from genome size data: assessing the threat to the Czech serpentine endemic Cerastium alsinifolium. – Preslia 86: 95–117.
Cerastium alsinifolium Tausch (Caryophyllaceae) is an endemic species restricted to serpentine sites in the Slavkovský les Mts (western Bohemia) in the Czech Republic. Interspecific hybridization with sympatric C. arvense L. has long been suspected due to the substantial and continuous morphological variation observed in the field but it has never been reliably confirmed. Although both parental species share the same number of somatic chromosomes they differ considerably in the size of their monoploid nuclear genomes (~1.5-fold), which makes it easy to identify the species. Flow cytometric investigation of more than 2200 Cerastium samples revealed five distinct genome size categories, corresponding to the two parental species and three types of interspecific hybrids (originating via both reduced and unreduced gametes). F1 interspecific hybrids were very common (nearly 40% of the samples analysed from the Slavkovský les Mts), which indicates the barriers to breeding between the parental species are weak. However, no backcrosses were indicated by the genome size data. In contrast to a widely held view that C. alsinifolium mostly occurs on open serpentine outcrops, this habitat was dominated by interspecific hybrids. The endemic species occurred mainly in moist and (semi-)shaded sites, including springs in spruce forest clearings, seeps and wet margins of forest roads. Multivariate morphometrics revealed that the shape and size of cauline leaves, development of sterile axillary shoots, bract characteristics, and lengths of calyx, petals and anthers are diagnostic for the groups investigated. While the determination of C. arvense usually poses few problems, distinguishing C. alsinifolium from interspecific hybrids on the basis of morphological characters is much more challenging; reduced pollen fertility of hybrids provides the most important clue. Our results indicate that effective conservation of this important component of the Czech flora will require more emphasis on the conservation of forest sites that host core populations of C. alsinifolium.
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Prach K., Jírová A. & Doležal J. (2014): Pattern of succession in old-field vegetation at a regional scale. – Preslia 86: 119–130.
In contrast to the many detailed studies on succession conducted at local scales, there is still a lack of studies on succession at broad geographical scales. In this paper the following questions are addressed: Which of the components of seral old-field vegetation are associated with environmental factors at a broad geographical scale? To what extent do target (typical of natural and semi-natural vegetation), non-target (alien and synanthropic) and endangered species participate in the succession and on which factors is their participation dependent? Altogether 282 phytosociological relevés were recorded in old fields located in various parts of the country. The fields were from 1 to 91 years old. The following environmental characteristics were determined for each old field: altitude, phytogeographic region, soil moisture (dry,mesic, wet) and bedrock (basic, acidic). Species were classified based on the extent to which they are endangered, origin (natives, archaeophytes, neophytes) and affiliation with vegetation units. Vegetation data were analysed using multivariate statistics, generalized linear mixed models and regression trees. The results indicate that all the environmental characteristics had at least a slightly significant effect on the species composition of the different seral stages. Succession clearly differed in the three subseres and depended on soil moisture. The number of target species typical of deciduous woodland, dry grasslands and fringe communities increased during succession. In contrast, the number of archaeophytes, neophytes and synanthropic species decreased with field age. More endangered and target species and fewer archaeophytes, neophytes and synanthropic species occurred in warmer lowland than in colder upland areas. The number of endangered, target and the total number of species decreased with soil moisture, while the number of neophytes and synanthropic species increased. The number of target species typical of dry grasslands decreased with altitude while that of synanthropic species increased. The age of old fields and soil moisture appeared to be the most important drivers of succession at a broad geographical scale. In addition to local site factors, climate represented by altitude and reflected also in biogeographical regions modified the course of succession. Succession was clearly divergent.
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Kabátová K., Vít P. & Suda J. (2014): Species boundaries and hybridization in central-European Nymphaea species inferred from genome size and morphometric data. – Preslia 86: 131–154.
Aquatic plants often pose considerable taxonomic problems. The genus Nymphaea (water lily) in central Europe is a good example of this in that their morphological similarity blurs the boundaries between species, which in addition are highly phenotypically plastic and possibly hybridize. The situation is further complicated by the occurrence of many garden cultivars. We used DNA flow cytometry and multivariate morphometrics (both distance-based and geometric) to obtain an insight into their phenotypic variation, identify taxon-specific characters and assess the frequency of hybridization in water lilies collected from 72 localities in the Czech Republic. For comparative purposes, we also included 34 garden cultivars. Flow cytometric measurements revealed a 45% difference in the holoploid genome sizes of N. alba and N. candida, which makes it easy to reliably separate them. In addition, the great majority of garden cultivars have distinctly smaller genomes than their native counterparts. Interspecific hybridization under natural conditions was quite rare (only ~1.8% of the individuals cytotyped corresponded to N. ×borealis), and involved both reduced and unreduced gametes. Discriminant analyses revealed cultivar- and species-specific morphological characters, which allow accurate determination of the samples. Gynoecium and stamen characters had the greatest taxonomic value. The recognition of N. ×borealis on the basis of morphological characters is uncertain. Our study shows that genome size may help to resolve the long-standing taxonomic complexities in this important component of the temperate aquatic flora.
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Kolář F., Lučanová M., Koutecký P., Dortová M., Knotek A. & Suda J. (2014): Spatio-ecological segregation of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes of Galium valdepilosum in central Europe. – Preslia 86: 155–178.
The Galium pusillum agg. (Rubiaceae), with four species native to the Czech Republic, is a taxonomically challenging complex. Of these, G. valdepilosum is particularly interesting because this relict species shows both ploidy (the incidence of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes) and habitat differentiation (occurrence on different soil types, including serpentines). With the aid of DNA flow cytometry, analysis of vegetation samples and a hydroponic cultivation experiment we addressed the cytogeographic pattern, ecological preferences of different cytotypes both across the entire range of distribution and in the contact zone and the plant’s response to serpentine edaphic stress. Ploidy distribution in G. valdepilosum is parapatric, with a narrow contact zone in southern Moravia. Neither triploids nor mixed 2x-4x populations were found, which together with the restriction of the species to isolated relict habitats, suggest the static character of the contact zone. In general, tetraploids occupied a wider range of habitats and colonized larger geographic areas. Diploids typically occurred in open low-competitive oak-pine forests on acidic soils while their tetraploid counterparts were also able to survive in open basiphilous grasslands with a comparatively higher competitive pressure. Serpentines did not play an important role in ecological sorting of the cytotypes. Cultivation experiments showed that G. valdepilosum is likely to be constitutively tolerant to serpentine chemical stress. Relative genome size and ecological data indicate that the serpentine populations from western Bohemia, traditionally referred to as G. sudeticum, differ from the type subalpine populations from the Krkonoše Mts and suggest their merger with G. valdepilosum.
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Krahulec F., Krahulcová A. & Hlaváček R. (2014): Rare hybrid swarm of Pilosella polymastix × P. officinarum: cytotype structure and modes of reproduction. – Preslia 86: 179–192.
We studied a small, spatially limited population of Pilosella plants, rich in morphological types, in the southwestern part of central Bohemia, Czech Republic. The following tetraploid parental Pilosella species putatively gave rise to the hybrid swarm analysed: sexual P. officinarum and apomictic P. polymastix (P. bauhiniP. caespitosa). In addition, the swarm consisted of (i) a stabilized tetraploid apomictic P. melinomelas (P. officinarum<P. polymastix) represented by two isozyme phenotypes (one dominating), and (ii) tetraploid and sexual hybrids between P. officinarumP. polymastix, with 16 isozyme phenotypes in the 18 plants analysed. We also found pentaploid P. bauhini (three plants comprising one isozyme phenotype), one hexaploid plant corresponding to P. melinomelas (putative 2n + n hybrid) and one pentaploid plant (probably a hybrid between hexaploid and unknown tetraploid). The single triploid plant detected in the hybrid swarm is probably of polyhaploid origin. Both P. polymastix and P. melinomelas are rare hybrid species, which because they had not been recorded for many years were considered as probably extinct in the Czech Republic.
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Strunecký O., Komárek J. & Šmarda J. (2014): Kamptonema (Microcoleaceae, Cyanobacteria), a new genus derived from the polyphyletic Phormidium on the basis of combined molecular and cytomorphological markers. – Preslia 86: 193–207.
Based on strains obtained from various regions and selected from the CCALA collection (Institute of BotanyAS CR) in Třeboň, a special clade of the order Oscillatoriales (Cyanobacteria), was identified and defined during a taxonomic revision of filamentous cyanobacteria. This study involved combined molecular, cytomorphological and ecological analysis. The new cluster, evaluated as a new genus, Kamptonema, is based on a clonal population from thermal waters in Dax, France, and corresponds to the type species, originally described as “Oscillatoria animalis” Agardh 1927 from thermal springs in Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic. Members of this new generic unit occur in various freshwater habitats throughout the world and play an important role (production of biomass) in central European aquatic ecosystems, e.g. in many periodical puddles and pools. The genus Kamptonema, with type species K. animale (Agardh 1927) comb. nova, is characterized by its separate position in a phylogenetic tree, its relatively thin unbranched filaments, characteristic cellular ultrastructure and lack of sheaths, heterocytes and akinetes. The type species is ecologically distinct, occurring in thermal springs. The necessary taxonomic and nomenclatoric transfers of related taxa are included in this article.
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Divíšek J., Chytrý M., Grulich V. & Poláková L. (2014): Landscape classification of the Czech Republic based on the distribution of natural habitats. – Preslia 86: 209–231.
We propose the first statistical landscape classification of the Czech Republic based on the distribution of different types of natural habitats (mainly defined in terms of plant communities) that resulted from national habitat mapping. We used occurrences of natural habitats in 2370 grid cells of 5' longitude × 3' latitude covering the whole area of the country. To cluster grid cells with similar habitat composition, we used two methods. First, we applied spatially unconstrained hierarchical clustering to obtain landscape types with maximal internal homogeneity in the range of natural habitats they contain. Second, we added spatial constraints to the classification process in order to obtain spatially cohesive regions. In both cases, the cross-validation technique proposed seven clusters as the optimal result. We also determined the characteristic habitats for each landscape type and region and characterized them using ecologically relevant attributes of abiotic environment and land cover. Irrespective of the method used, our results showed that the separation of individual clusters is primarily determined by altitude and related climatic factors, and differences between the Bohemian Massif and Carpathians. We compared our results with existing expert-based phytogeographical, biogeographical and zoogeographical divisions of the Czech Republic and also with a recently published statistical landscape classification of the Czech Republic based on the abiotic environment. Our landscape classifications closely matched the phytogeographical divisions of the Czech Republic proposed by Skalický (1988) and Dostál (1957, 1966). They differed more when compared with the biogeographical division of the Czech Republic (Culek 1996). However, we do not suggest that any of these classifications is superior to the others, because each of them is based on different principles and data. Both expert-based and statistical classifications can produce multiple meaningful results depending on a priori weighting of input data, number of target units and classification methods used. The advantage of statistical classifications is that input data and classification process are clearly described and therefore their logic can be more easily understood. The classification based on natural habitats presented here is not intended to replace any of the previous classifications, but to provide useful insights into biogeographical patterns in this country in addition to the previous classifications.
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Willner W., Hülber K. & Fischer M. A. (2014): Return of the grades: towards objectivity in evolutionary classification. – Preslia 86: 233–243.
Evolutionary classification, i.e. a biological classification that recognizes paraphyletic groups as formal taxa, is often regarded as highly subjective and therefore unscientific. We argue that clades with evolutionary key innovations are real biological units and that, as a logical consequence, paraphyletic grades are equally real; if a clade with evolutionary key innovations is nested within an older clade, the remainder of the more inclusive clade forms a paraphyletic grade. Therefore, we regard an evolutionary classification, which recognizes grades and gives formal names to them, as a desirable supplement to the purely phylogenetic classifications, which are dominant today. To increase the objectivity of evolutionary classifications, an approach called “patrocladistic classification” was proposed. We adopted this approach using the approximate number of apomorphies separating two clades along the phylogenetic tree as the patristic distance. Based on a cluster analysis of all angiosperm families, we outline an evolutionary classification of the angiosperms, which includes three subclasses (one of them paraphyletic), 12 superorders (four of them paraphyletic) and ~ 74 orders (12 of them paraphyletic).We suggest that well characterized monophyletic taxa can be reproduced by both phylogenetic and evolutionary approaches and used as a cladistic backbone of any classification. For the remaining groups, we advocate a peaceful coexistence of phylogenetic and evolutionary classifications, admitting both narrowly defined clades and broadly defined paraphyletic grades as valid taxa.
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Budzáková M., Hodálová I., Mereďa P. Jr., Somlyay L., Bisbing S. M. & Šibík J. (2014): Karyological, morphological and ecological differentiation of Sesleria caerulea and S. tatrae in the Western Carpathians and adjacent regions. – Preslia 86: 245–277.
The tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28) Sesleria caerulea and octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) S. tatrae are closely related species with very similar morphology. These species can tolerate a wide range of ecological conditions, and in areas where the two co-occur, individual plants are often hardly distinguishable and assumed to be products of hybridization. Consequently, the ecological requirements of each species and the evolutionary relationship between the two species remain unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the karyological, morphological and ecological differentiation between the two species. A total of 877 S. caerula and S. tatrae plants from 68 populations in the Western Carpathians, Alps and Sudetes mountain ranges were analysed for DNA ploidy level and subjected to morphometric examination. Moreover, phytosociological relevés for each location and Ellenberg’s indicator values were used as supplementary environmental variables for interpreting the results from an ecological point of view. All individuals of S. caerulea were tetraploid and all those of S. tatrae octoploid. There were no intermediate ploidy levels, which would indicate hybrids between the two species. Morphometric analyses of 28 morphological characters revealed that eight were significantly different in these two species. Of these, density of hairs between the veins on the lemma, and length of lemma, glume and palea were the most reliable diagnostic characters. Morphological dissimilarities, however, were found only at the population level and were not always useful in identification of individual plants. Important differences between the two species were also found in ecological requirements. Detected ecological differences were mostly associated with altitude, moisture, temperature, light intensity and nutrient levels, in terms of which Sesleria caerulea was most tolerant. Conversely, S. tatrae grew under a more narrow range of conditions, occurred at high altitudes and preferred high humidity, high light intensities and nutrient-rich soils. The name Sesleria tatrae is typified.
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Čtvrtlíková M., Znachor P. & Vrba J. (2014): The effect of temperature on the phenology of germination of Isoëtes lacustris. – Preslia 86: 279–292.
Isoëtes lacustris (quillwort) is an aquatic macrophyte commonly dominating oligotrophic softwater lakes in Europe. Reproductive ecology of a relic population of quillwort based on spore germination was studied in an acidified mountain lake in the Czech Republic. In a four-year experiment, we recorded temperature-related temporal changes in micro- and macrospore germination and sporeling establishment in (i) natural in situ conditions in Černé jezero lake and (ii) in the laboratory at various temperatures. Germination of both micro- and macrospores increased gradually over four consecutive growth seasons. Several annual cohorts of germinating macrospores born together in a sporangium indicate that spores remain viable for up to several years and the formation of a spore bank. Minimum temperature necessary for germination was lower for microspores (6 °C) than macrospores (12 °C) and this ensured the availability of spermatozoids for the fertilization of the long-living macrogamethophytes whenever they produced archegonia during growing season(s). Macrogametophyte development started between July and October and sporeling development always followed in the next or subsequent springs. Long germination and embryo development may limit reproduction in I. lacustris by making it sensitive to both episodic and chronic changes in the environment. The relatively high minimum temperature for macrospore germination may set general limits for the reproduction of I. lacustris in lakes, by constraining its distribution along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients, and to particular depths. The mean length of time when the temperature (≥ 12 °C) was high enough for the germination of I. lacustris in Černé jezero lake was 119 days and occurred during the period June to September in 2004–2011.
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Komárek J., Kaštovský J., Mareš J. & Johansen J. R. (2014): Taxonomic classification of cyanoprokaryotes (cyanobacterial genera) 2014, using a polyphasic approach. – Preslia 86: 295–335.
The whole classification of cyanobacteria (species, genera, families, orders) has undergone extensive restructuring and revision in recent years with the advent of phylogenetic analyses based on molecular sequence data. Several recent revisionary and monographic works initiated a revision and it is anticipated there will be further changes in the future. However, with the completion of the monographic series on the Cyanobacteria in Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa, and the recent flurry of taxonomic papers describing new genera, it seems expedient that a summary of the modern taxonomic system for cyanobacteria should be published. In this review, we present the status of all currently used families of cyanobacteria, review the results of molecular taxonomic studies, descriptions and characteristics of new orders and new families and the elevation of a few subfamilies to family level. All recently defined cyanobacterial genera (some still invalid) are listed in the family to which they are likely to belong and an indication is given of their taxonomic validity and level of polyphasic characterization of each genus.
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Peterka T., Plesková Z., Jiroušek M. & Hájek M. (2014): Testing floristic and environmental differentiation of rich fens on the Bohemian Massif. – Preslia 86: 337–366.
The south-eastern part of the Bohemian Massif (the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, the Třeboň basin, Czech Republic) is an important hotspot of fen biodiversity. Especially rich fens with calcium- tolerant peat mosses (the Sphagno warnstorfii-Tomentypnion alliance) currently harbour highly endangered organisms. In this study we gathered phytosociological and environmental (water chemistry, water table depth) data from 57 unique and well-preserved fens. The ISOPAM algorithm reproduced the expert-based classification at the alliance level presented in the Vegetation of the Czech Republic monograph. Particular types of vegetation were nearly completely differentiated in the PCA of environmental data and all their pairs differed significantly with respect to pH, which together with calcium was correlated with the major vegetation gradient. The secondary gradient coincided with the concentration of nitrate and potassium, but was not apparent in the bryophyte subset. When only data for vascular plants were analyzed, the major gradient reflected increasing number of species from poor to extremely-rich fens, including ubiquitous grassland species, and only partially coincided with pH and calcium. Contrary to expectations, neither the extremely rich or rich fens were associated with low concentration phosphorus in the water. In addition, particular vegetation types did not differ in the N:P ratio of bryophyte biomass. Species composition of extremely rich fens thus seemed to be determined predominantly by a high pH/calcium level and waterlogging, low iron concentration and absence of sphagna that would hamper regeneration of some competitively weak vascular plants. We demonstrated that the delimitation of the major vegetation types (alliances) along the poor-rich gradient makes great floristic and ecological sense also in the Hercynian Mountains and that pH and calcium rather than nutrient availability differentiate causally major vegetation types by determining structure of the moss layer.
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Řepka R., Veselá P. & Mráček J. (2014): Are there hybrids between Carex flacca and C. tomentosa in the Czech Republic and Slovakia? – Preslia 86: 367–379.
At two sites in the Czech Republic and Slovakia we found plants morphologically intermediate between Carex flacca subsp. flacca and C. tomentosa. Here we present the results of morphological and molecular analyses conducted to test whether these plants are the putative hybrid C. ×danielis (C. flacca subsp. flacca × C. tomentosa). The results revealed a conflict between the morphological characters and molecular markers. Although morphological characters show combinations of characters of the supposed parents and some intermediate characters, molecular markers (ITS, AFLP, trnL-F) indicate that the putative hybrid clearly belongs to one of its presumed parents, C. flacca subsp. flacca. These results refute reports of this hybrid occurring in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
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Górski P. & Váňa J. (2014): A synopsis of liverworts occurring in the Tatra Mountains (Western Carpathians, Poland and Slovakia): checklist, distribution and new data. – Preslia 86: 381–485.
This paper presents the current state of knowledge on the liverwort flora of the entire massif of the Tatra Mts, the highest mountain range in the Carpathians. All data on the liverwort flora of the massif, published during 1814–2014, and personal material collected by P. Górski during 2002–2014 were compiled. The distribution of species is presented separately for five areas: Belianske Tatry Mts (located entirely in Slovakia), High Tatra Mts (Slovak part), High Tatra Mts (Polish part), Západné Tatry Mts (Slovakia) and Tatry Zachodnie Mts (Poland). For each species, its range in altitude in particular areas is presented and the total number of localities given. Moreover, the highest (maximum) and lowest (minimum) localities are listed for every species. The data collected consists of more than 18,500 records (3600 of which are original). In the entire area of the Tatra Mts there are 194 species of liverwort, with 131 in the Belianske Tatry Mts, 178 in the High Tatra Mts and 179 in the Western Tatra Mts (Západné Tatry and the Tatry Zachodnie Mts). Nearly the same number of species is recorded on each side of the Poland-Slovak border. There is a total of 185 species in the Slovak Tatra Mts and 184 in the Polish Tatra Mts. The liverwort flora in the Tatra Mts has been studied unequally. Most data came from the Slovak High Tatra Mts and the least from the Slovak Západné Tatry Mts. This paper presents, for the first time, nine species previously not recorded in Slovak Západné Tatry Mts, four previously not recorded in Belianske Tatry Mts, three previously not recorded in Slovak High Tatra Mts, two previously not recorded in Polish Tatry Zachodnie Mts and two previously not recorded in Polish High Tatra Mts. The first locality of Odontoschisma (= Cladopodiella) francisci is documented in Polish Tatra Mts. Moreover, new localities for liverworts considered extinct in Slovakia (i.e. Cephaloziella varians and Geocalyx graveolens) are recorded. The new data for the years 2002 2014 allowed an analysis of the frequency of some liverworts in the Polish and Slovak Red Lists. The rarest and most common liverworts in the Tatra Mts are highlighted. The liverwort flora on the highest peak of the Tatra Mts (and the entire Carpathians), Mt Gerlachovský štít (2655 m above sea level) and its ridge was catalogued. The results of the search for the rarest Tatra liverworts at their historical localities are also presented. This article presents original localities for many species, including the rarest Tatra liverworts such as Nardia breidleri, Marsupella apiculata, M. sparsifolia, Eremonotus myriocarpus, Frullania fragilifolia, Odontoschisma (= Cladopodiella) francisci, Orthocaulis (= Barbilophozia) binsteadii, Fuscocephaloziopsis (= Cephalozia) catenulata, Scapania crassiretis and S. gymnostomophila. The list of Tatra liverworts presented also includes 22 species erroneously reported from this area. The species excluded from the Tatra liverwort flora upon revision of the available data include Barbilophozia hyperborea (R. M. Schust.) Potemkin, Lophozia groenlandica (Nees) Macoun (L. schusterana Schljakov) and Scapania glaucocephala (Taylor) Austin var. scapanioides (C. Massal.) Potemkin.
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